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Ramandeep tries explaining to Gaurav that she doesn't have any grudges against Palak. The 4th advertisement of the series from Coca-Cola celebrates the "crazy for happiness" thought at a traffic jam where people can just forget about the heat and stress and enjoy a chilled Coca-Cola. We should not require a reason to spread happiness, all you need to do is share a coke. THE head of a major publishing group and a photographer were charged this month over the publication of intimate photos of Prince William's wife Catherine, sources said.
The photos - some of them of the former Kate Middleton topless - were printed in two separate publications in September, causing a huge furore and leading to the royal couple launching legal proceedings in France. According to sources close to the case, the head of the Mondadori Group - the publisher of glossy magazine Closer where the topless shots were printed - and a photographer at regional daily La Provence, were both charged.
Judges in the Paris suburb of Nanterre charged the photographer with "invasion of privacy" for taking photos of the former Kate Middleton in a swimsuit while she was on holiday in the south of France with her husband. Those shots were published in La Provence. But the most intimate shots showing the Duchess of Cambridge topless and having suncream rubbed into her buttocks by William were published in Closer. Judges are still investigating who took those photos. Ernesto Mauri, the chief executive of Mondadori, was meanwhile also charged with "invasion of privacy" for having let the topless shots be published.
The pictures were taken while the couple sunned themselves on the terrace of a chateau in the south of France. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge launched legal proceedings as soon as they were published, and French authorities promptly banned Closer from any further publication or resale of the topless pictures, while launching a criminal probe into how they were obtained. The couple's lawyer, Aurelien Hamelle, told an injunction hearing in September that the images of William and his wife were of "a highly intimate moment" in the life of a young married couple that had no place on the cover of a magazine.
The lawyer also argued that the images were particularly distressing for the couple in light of William's mother Princess Diana's death in a car that crashed in a Paris tunnel while being pursued by paparazzi. Local newspaper La Provence published pictures of the royal couple at the chateau on September 7 but denied that its photographer had taken the topless images. A Carnival cruise ship was evacuated on Wednesday after explosions on two nearby barges lit up the Alabama sky and left three people critically injured.
About crew members were made to evacuate the Carnival Triumph after two nearby barges exploded, leaving unsafe conditions for nearby vessels. The explosions that forced the evacuation happened on two fuel barges in Mobile, Alabama.
The fire, which appeared to be accidental, left three people with severe burns. Firefighters were called shortly after pm on Wednesday for the explosions, which took place on the Mobile River east of downtown. The initial blast happened in a channel near the George C.
Wallace Tunnel, which carries traffic from Interstate 10 under the Mobile River, but the tunnel was able to remain open. Antimony Sb is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern.
In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago.
Chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment of waste antimony -uranium composite oxide catalyst. For the waste antimony -uranium composite oxide catalyst, the chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment were proposed, and evaluated using hydrogen chloride gas at K.
During the treatment, the weight loss of the composite oxide sample, which resulted from the volatilization of antimony , was confirmed. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that uranium oxide, U 3 O 8 , was formed during the reaction. After the treatment at K for 1 h, almost all the uranium contained in the waste catalyst was dissolved by a 3 M nitric acid solution at K within 10 min, although that of the non-treated catalyst was less than 0.
It was found that the chlorination and volatilization treatment was effective to separate antimony from the composite oxide catalyst and change uranium into its removable form. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes. Full Text Available Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification.
The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas.
However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.
Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. Potent heme-degrading action of antimony and antimony -containing parasiticidal agents. The ability of antimony and antimony -containing parasiticidal agents to enhance the rate of heme degradation in liver and kidney was investigated.
Trivalent antimony was shown to be an extremely potent inducer of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in both organs, whereas the pentavalent form was a weak inducer of this enzyme. The ability of antimony to induce heme oxygenase was dose-dependent, independent of the salt used, and not a result of a direct activation of the enzyme in vitro. Concomitant with heme oxygenase induction by antimony , microsomal heme and cytochrome P contents decreased, the cyto-chrome Pdependent mixed function oxidase system was impaired, and delta-ami-nolevulinate synthase ALAS , the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis, underwent the sequential changes-initial inhibition followed by rebound induction-usually associated with the administration of transition elements such as cobalt.
Antimony induction of heme oxygenase however, unlike the enzyme induction elicited by cobalt, was not prevented either by cysteine administered orally or as a cysteine metal complex, or by simultaneous zinc administration. Desferoxamine also did not block heme oxygenase induction by antimony , but this chelator did prevent the rebound increase in ALAS activity associated with antimony or cobalt treatment.
Antimony -containing parasiticidal drugs were also potent inducers of heme oxygenase in liver and kidney. The heme degradative action of these drugs may be related in part to the jaundice commonly associated with the prolonged therapeutic use of these agents.
The heme-oxygenase-inducing action of antimony -containing parasiticidal drugs is a newly defined biological property of these compounds. The relation between the parasiticidal and the heme-oxygenase-inducing actions of such drugs is unknown. However, certain parasites contain hemoproteins or require heme compounds during their life cycle. It may therefore be. Preparation of antimony -doped nanoparticles by hydrothermal method. The doping levels of antimony were determined by volumetric method and iodimetry.
The results show that antimony is incorporated into the crystal lattice of tin oxide and the doping levels of antimony in the resulting powders are 2. The mean particle size of ATO nanoparticles is in the range of 25 - 30 nm. The effects of antimony doping level on the crystalline size and crystallinity were also discussed.
In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate. E-mail: samanta usp. Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso ipen. E-mail:hfandrad usp. Pentavalent antimony , as meglumine antimoniate Glucantime or sodium stibogluconate Pentostam , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown.
The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony , with suitable physical and biological properties. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.
Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements.
All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers.
CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony. Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated.
It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii. The exposure to and health effects of antimony.
Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact , other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals.
Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant Protection of cesium- antimony photocathodes. In order to operate gaseous photomultipliers in the visible range it was suggested to protect sensitive photocathodes against contact to air and counting gases by their coating with a thin solid dielectric film.
The photoelectron transmission through these films and their protection capability have been studied in detail. Cesium- antimony photocathodes are shown to withstand exposure to considerable doses of oxygen and dry air when coated with Nal films. This opens ways to their operation in gas media. Someof the data have been calculated by means of theoretical model. A good agree-ment was obtained with measured values.
Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility We report the effects of antimony Sb doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon a-C:H films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony , in the film deposited from the 1. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film.
On the structural effect, the average continuous sp2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping.
The results show that optical gap dropped from 3. The electrical resistivity reduced from These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp 2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. Determination of antimony trioxide in fire-retardant conveyor belts.
Two methods for the determination of antimony trioxide in rubber and pvc are described. One is a colorimetric method based on the reaction of antimony with rhodamine B; the other is a polarographic method. The results of the two methods show a satisfactory consistency and the methods themselves appear rapid and effective. The presence of antimony in various dental filling materials.
Antimony was determined in a number of non-metallic dental materials currently used for tooth restoration. The method applied was instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of antimony in some of the brands tested was found to be as high as fold that in the normal hard dental tissues. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis CL remains a major world health problem, with about 1. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement.
For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action.
Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony , there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice.
Meglumine antimoniate , Glucantime, Aventis, S. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI Tl scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony and high. Borborema, Samanta E. E-mails: samanta usp. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony. Antimony Moessbauer spectra of antimony III compounds with a stereochemically active lone pair.
The Sb Moessbauer parameters at 20 K for 23 antimony III compounds were obtained and the data are discussed in terms of known crystal structures. The isomer shifts and quadrupole coupling constants depend strongly on the type of configuration around the Sb III atoms with stereochemically active lone pair electrons. Effect of antimony on lead-acid battery negative.
The role of antimony on the lead-acid battery negative in terms of its effect on charge efficiency, its effect on gassing overpotential, its interactive influence with lignin expander in controlling the charge efficiency, and its retentive behavior or purging characteristics as SbH 3 in the overcharge gas stream was investigated.
Linear potential sweep LPS cycling of Plante-type lead electrodes were used to determine the effect of antimony on gassing overpotential and to monitor its concentration either in the active material or the exit gas stream. Results showed a significant contribution of antimony in decreasing charge efficiency and an overwhelming role of lignin expander in suppressing the effect of antimony on charge efficiency. The critical lead-electrode potential for purging antimony from the electrode is close to mV vs.
Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide. In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface.
After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. Metal-based anodes have recently aroused much attention in sodium ion batteries SIBs owing to their high theoretical capacities and low sodiation potentials.
However, their progresses are prevented by the inferior cycling performance caused by severe volumetric change and pulverization during the de sodiation process. To address this issue, herein an alloying strategy was proposed and nanoporous bismuth Bi - antimony Sb alloys were fabricated by dealloying of ternary Mg-based precursors. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony. Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with orientation, which were doped with antimony.
Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples. Antimony distribution and environmental mobility at an historic antimony smelter site, New Zealand. A historic antimony smelter site at Endeavour Inlet, New Zealand has smelter residues with up to 17 wt.
Residues include coarse tailings cm scale particles, poorly sorted , sand tailings well sorted and smelter slag blocks up to 30 cm across. All of this material has oxidised to some degree over the ca. Oxidation has resulted in acidification of the residues down to pH Smelter slag contains pyrrhotite FeS and metallic antimony , and oxidation is restricted to surfaces only.
The coarse tailings are the most oxidised, and few sulfide grains persist. Unoxidised sand tailings contain vol. The sand tailings are variably oxidised on a scale of cm, but original depositional layering is preserved during oxidation and formation of senarmontite Sb 2 O 3. Oxidation of sand tailings has resulted in localised mobility of both Sb and As on the cm scale, resulting in redistribution of these metalloids with iron oxyhydroxide around sand grain boundaries.
Experiments demonstrate that Sb mobility decreases with time on a scale of days. Attenuation of both As and Sb occurs due to adsorption on to iron oxyhydroxides which are formed during oxidation of the smelter residues. There is no detectable loss of Sb or As from the smelter site into the adjacent river, antimony in primitive smelter soils remain largely immobile on the metre scale. How can we adapt to geological scarcity of antimony? Investigation of antimony 's substitutability and of other measures to achieve a sustainable use.
Abstract Antimony is an element that is applied in many useful applications for mankind. However, antimony resources are very scarce, when comparing the current extraction rates with the availability of antimony containing ores. From an inter-temporal sustainability perspective, current generations. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics.
Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.
Professor Zhao Tiancong is a famous specialist of our country in nonferrous merallurgy field and a doctoral teacher of Central South University of Technology. He has been devoting diligently his life to the development of the antimony metallurgy. Determining arsenic in elemental antimony containing selenium and tellurium. The authors have developed a method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony containing selenium, tellurium, and mercury, in which they isolated it in elementary form for separation from the antimony and the associated elements silicon and phosphorus , followed by colorimetric determination of the arsenic from arsenic-molbdenum blue.
The reducing agents to reduce the arsenic were sodium hypophosphite and tin II chloride, which do not reduce antimony and which do not interfere with the determination. This method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony without preliminary separation of the selenium and tellurium is in no way inferior in accuracy to the method given in All-Union State Standard GOST Interplay of single particle and collective excitations in antimony nuclei. The antimony nuclei are considered classical examples for coexisting spherical and well-deformed structures.
The electromagnetic moment measurements presented in this paper provide direct evidence for shape coexistence. Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery.
Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA OR 1. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA.
Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc. Effect of antimony substitution in iron pnictide compounds.
In the present study we have examined the effect of negative chemical pressure in iron pnictides. We have synthesized substitution series replacing arsenic by antimony in a number of and iron arsenides and present their crystallographic and physical properties. Electron irradiation effects in amorphous antimony thin films obtained by cluster-beam deposition.
Fuchs, G. Lyon-1 Univ. In order to understand the differences existing between films obtained with a classical molecular beam deposition MBD and the new low-energy cluster beam deposition LECBD , transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize the first stages of antimony LECBD. Antimony deposits are discontinuous and amorphous up to 2 nm in thickness. They are formed with isolated amorphous antimony particles surrounded by an amorphous antimony oxide shell. Moreover, under electron beam exposure in the microscope, an amorphous-crystal transformation has been observed in the oxide shell.
Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony III and antimony V in food packaging materials. A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry ETAAS is presented and evaluated.
The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination.
Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions.
Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent TA-Chitosan beads in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low ppb level as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail.
The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. Complex processing of antimony -mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit. Present article is devoted to complex processing of antimony -mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit.
The purpose of research was obtaining the metallic mercury and antimony with further gold and thallium extraction. The major contributions of the isotopes Sb and Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system HTS , have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony III and V oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to o C.
The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony III to antimony V is minimized, the solubility of Sb 2 O 3 increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and o C, and then levels out or decreases slightly.
The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to o C and decreases at temperatures above o C. These solubility changes for the antimony V solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species SbO 3 - or Sb OH 6 - , even though the compositions of antimony -containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations.
Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be ruled out that hydrated Sb 2 O 5 especially the pyrochlore form might be less soluble in near-neutral, low. The addition of antimony to III-V nanostructures is expected to give greater freedom in bandgap engineering for device applications. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of indium and antimony surface segregation.
Using several very high resolution analysis techniques we clearly demonstrate blocking of indium incorporation by antimony. Furthermore, indium incorporation resumes when the antimony concentration drops below a critical level. This leads to major differences between nominal and actual structures. The investigation of antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions. Experimental data on trivalent antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions containing 3.
Possible mechanism of antimony 3 extraction is determined and the concentration constant for this process is calculated. Effect of temperature on the extraction of trivalent antimony is estimated. The values of enthalpy, free enthalpy and entropy are determined. Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system. In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism.
An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation.
In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing.
In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material. The concentration levels of antimony , arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid.
The contents of Sb, As and Hg are Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide.
Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles.
Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.
Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions.
However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania.
Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.
Antimony recycling in the United States in The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in , discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In , the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.
Standardization of intralesional meglumine antimoniate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Intralesional treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis has been applied for over 30 years at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, with good therapeutic results and without relevant systemic toxicity. The technique is described in detail sufficient to enable replication. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional meglumine antimoniate is a simple, effective, and safe technique, which may be used in basic healthcare settings.
Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony. Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement.
A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts. In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer.
In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance. Inhibition of DNA-double strand break repair by antimony compounds. The DNA DSB was quantified with pulsed field gel electrophoresis immediately after irradiation non-repair group as well as at 30 min post-irradiation repair group. The degree of repair inhibition was determined by the differences in the amount of DNA DSB between non-repair and repair groups.
In trichloride, 0. The mean lethal doses, D 0 , for the treatment with antimony trichloride and antimony potassium tartrate, were approximately 0. This indicates that the repair inhibition by antimony trichloride occurred in the dose range near D 0 , but the antimony potassium tartrate inhibited the repair at doses where most cells lost their proliferating ability. Self-standing nanoribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide with well-defined size and band gap.
Sub nm semiconducting nanostructures are crucial for the realization of nanoscale devices. Fabrication of nanostructures at this scale with homogeneous properties is challenging. Using ab initio calculations, we show that self-standing ribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide of width 1.
Molecular dynamics studies show that these ribbons are stable at K. Selective oxidation of propene on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony. The [ 16 0] acrolein content of the total acrolein formed and the proportion of 16 0 in the oxygen of the carbon dioxide by-product have been determined. Oxygen anion mobility appears to be greater in the molybdate catalyst than in the other two.
Silver antimony Ohmic contacts to moderately doped n-type germanium. Dumas, D. Paul glasgow. It is proposed that the Ohmic behaviour arises from an increased doping concentration at the Ge surface due to the preferential evaporation of Sb confirmed by transmission electron microscope analysis.
It is suggested that the doping concentration has increased to a level where field emission will be the dominate conduction mechanism. This was deduced from the low temperature electrical characterisation of the contact, which exhibits Ohmic behaviour down to a temperature of 6.
Ultrafast photoinduced structure phase transition in antimony single crystals. Picosecond Raman scattering is used to study the photoinduced ultrafast dynamics in Peierls distorted antimony. We find evidence for an ultrafast nonthermal reversible structural phase transition. Most surprisingly, we find evidence that this transition evolves toward a lower symmetry in contrast to. Full Text Available We report on 4 patients 1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B.
Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. Vapor pressures of dimethylcadmium, trimethylbismuth, and tris dimethylamino antimony. Application of KWU antimony removal process at Gentilly The results of the application will be presented and the 'lessons learned' will be discussed in detail.
The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx.
The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity.
Graphs and 10 references. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair. A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair mg irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.
Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI TI detector equipped with a channel pulse-height analyzer.
After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. Antimony content of macrofungi from clean and polluted areas. Studies on the dissolution of antimony doped ferrites. Release of this Sb radioactive antimony and its deposition on out of core surfaces occurs due to oxygen ingress in the system during shutdown periods and off normal conditions. Sb deposition on the magnetite bearing carbon steel surface of the PHT system results in increase of radiation fields.
The consequence of this is low apparent decontamination factors observed after system decontamination. Once Sb is deposited on bare carbon steel CS surface or magnetite bearing carbon steel surface it is not amenable for removal by normal reductive decontamination process. It has to decay by its own half-life or has to be removed by oxidative dissolution.
To understand the role of antimony and its removal on the ion exchange column, antimony doped ferrites were prepared and their dissolution in CNA citric acid, NTA, Ascorbic acid; 1. The time taken for the dissolution of antimony -doped ferrites was found to increase with increasing Sb content in the ferrite.
The point of zero charge pzc value of Sb substituted magnetite was determined to understand its adsorption on carbon steel surfaces of the PHT system. While, pzc of magnetite in typical decontamination formulations was below 3. The pzc for aqueous suspension of antimony -substituted magnetite sintered at K was 4. Hence, even at this low pH, pzc.
Atomic structure of the SbCu surface alloy : A surface X-ray diffraction study. We present here a structural study of this Sb-Cu compound by surface X Increased thiol levels in antimony -resistant Leishmania infantum isolated from treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. METHODS Strains isolated from antimony -refractory patients in vitro antimony -resistant isolates and antimony -responsive patients in vitro antimony -sensitive isolates were examined.
Morphological changes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy after trivalent antimony exposure. P-glycoprotein P-gp efflux pump activity was evaluated using the pump-specific inhibitor verapamil hydrochloride, and the role of thiol in trivalent antimony resistance was investigated using the enzymatic inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine. P-gp efflux activity was not involved in antimony resistance in these isolates. Importantly, the resistant isolates contained higher levels of thiol compared to the sensitive isolates, and inhibition of thiol synthesis in the resistant isolates recovered their sensitivity to trivalent antimony treatment, and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in promastigotes exposed to the drug.
This indicates that redox metabolism plays an important role in the antimony -resistance of New World VL isolates. Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Nanomaterials as anode for lithium-ion batteries LIB have gained widespread interest in the research community. However, scaling up and processibility are bottlenecks to further commercialization of these materials.
Mechanical and chemical stabilities of the electrodes are ensured by an optimal electrode-electrolyte system design, with a polyimide-based binder together with fluoroethylene carbonate in the electrolyte. The polyimide binder accommodates the volume expansion during alloying process and fluoroethylene carbonate suppresses the increase in charge transfer resistance of the electrodes.
We observed that particle size is not a major factor affecting the charge-discharge capacities, rate capability and stability of the material. Effects of antimony additions on the fracture of nickel at C. Antimony additions about 1 wt pct are found to drastically lower tensile ductility and induce extensive intergranular cracking in nickel at C. This effect is most pronounced at lower strain rates.
These results are contrasted to results for pure nickel where ductility is high and failure occurs via plastic instability. Scanning electron microscopy revealed faceting of crack and cavity surfaces in the antimony doped nickel.
Auger electron spectroscopy revealed segregation of antimony and residual sulfur to both grain boundaries and to the internal free surfaces of cracks and cavities. Inert ion sputter profiling showed that most of the antimony and sulfur enrichment on these surfaces is confined within a few atom layers of the interface.
The embrittling influence of antimony is discussed in terms of the observed antimony and sulfur segregation to internal interfaces. Possible connections between the segregation and the observed embrittlement involve segregation effects on grain boundary sliding, grain boundary and surface diffusivities, and interfacial energetics. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes Sb and Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity.
Antimony can be considered both a critical metal and an environmental hazard, with a toxicity similar to arsenic. It is concentrated in stibnite deposits, but also present in polymetallic and precious metal ores, frequently accompanied by arsenic. We have studied the mineralogical controls on the mobility of antimony in three types of mine waste: stibnite tailings from an antimony mine, tetrahedrite-bearing waste rock from copper mining, and gold mine tailings and ore roaster waste.
Our results demonstrate that the tendency of antimony to leach into the aqueous environment or remain sequestered in solid phases depends on the primary host minerals and conditions governing the precipitation of secondary antimony -hosting phases. In tailings at the Beaver Brook antimony mine in Newfoundland, Canada, stibnite oxidizes rapidly, and secondary minerals such as the relatively insoluble Sb-Fe tripuhyite-like phase and Sb-bearing goethite.
However, under dry conditions, the most important secondary Sb host is the Mg-Sb hydroxide brandholzite, but this easily soluble mineral disappears when it rains. Finally, the original antimony -hosting minerals, both stibnite and sulphosalts, in the gold ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Canada were completely destroyed during ore roasting.
In tailings-contaminated sediments, antimony persists in roaster-generated iron oxide phases, except under reducing conditions where some of the antimony forms a Sb-S phase. The combined presence of antimony and arsenic in mine waste complicates risk assessment but in general, our findings suggest that antimony is less mobile than arsenic in the environment. Antimony Sb is a naturally occurring toxic element commonly associated with arsenic As in the environment and both elements have similar chemistry and toxicity.
Increasing numbers of studies have focused on microbial As transformations, while microbial Sb interactions are still not well understood. To gain insight into microbial roles in the geochemical cycling of Sb and As, soils from Sb mine tailing were examined for the presence of Sb- and As-oxidizing bacteria.
However, no SbIII oxidation activity was detected from the Sinorhizobium-related isolate, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms for Sb and As oxidation. These results demonstrate that indigenous microorganisms associated with Sb mine soils are capable of Sb and As oxidation, and potentially contribute to the speciation and mobility of Sb and As in situ. Determination of phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation by measurement and simulation. Experimental determination of phosphorus cross-contamination during antimony implantation is presented.
As a suitable structure for this experiment, a buried layer was employed which is created by implanting antimony followed by a long diffusion process. The samples implanted in different implanters were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS , four-point probe and spreading resistance methods. Methods that can and cannot be used to determine phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation and to estimate the fluence of phosphorus being co-implanted with antimony are described in detail.
Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness. Mamun, M. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness.
Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali. Investigation of antimony extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate. The effect of iodide, hydrogen and pertechnetate ions on antimony extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate TBP from aqueous nitric acid solutions under irradiated nuclear fuel processing is investigated at room temperature.
The coefficients of antimony distribution are shown to increase at the presence of technetium ions times and iodine ions - and more times. Variation of hydrogen ion concentration does not affect antimony extraction. The schemes of the mechanism of antimony extraction at the pressence of iodide and pertechnetate ions are presented. Compositions of the formed compounds are given. Antimony contamination, consequences and removal techniques: A review. A significant amount of antimony Sb enters into the environment every year because of the wide use of Sb compounds in industry and agriculture.
The exposure to Sb, either direct consumption of Sb or indirectly, may be fatal to the human health because both antimony and antimonide are toxic. Firstly, the introduction of Sb chemistry, distribution and health threats are presented in this review, which is essential to the removal techniques.
Removal techniques concentrate on the advantages, drawbacks, economical efficiency and the recent achievements of each technique. We also take an overall consideration of experimental conditions, comparison criteria, and economic aspects. Proton-activation technique for the determination of antimony. Photon-activation analysis has been applied to the determination of antimony. Thick-target yields and analytical sensitivities are given for the indicator-radionuclides sup m Te, sup g Te, sup m Te, sup g Te, sup m Te, sup m Sb and sup g Sb for proton energies between 9 and 25 MeV.
Data are given for the most significant interfering reactions. Antimony was determined instrumentally in bismuth of very pure grade and the results are compared with those obtained from two independent techniques. Preparation and properties of organo acetylacetonato antimony V compounds. The compounds are monomeric in solution. Ph2SbCl2Acac shows abnormal.
Used as a hardening agent in lead bullets, antimony Sb has become a major contaminant in shooting range soils of some countries including Switzerland. Soil contamination by Sb is also an environmental problem in countries with Sb-mining activities such as China and Bolivia. Because of its toxicity and relatively high mobility, there is concern over the risk of Sb transfer from contaminated soils into plants, and thus into the food chain. In particular there is very little information on the environmental behavior of methylated antimony , which can be produced by microbial biomethylation of inorganic Sb in contaminated soils.
Shoot Sb concentrations, however, did not differ among the three treatments. In contrast, similar concentrations of TMSb were found in the shoots in both inorganic Sb treatments. The results indicate that biomethylation of Sb may occur in plants. In the TMSb treatment TMSb was the major Sb species, but the two inorganic Sb species were also found both in shoots and roots along with some unknown Sb species, suggesting that also TMSb demethylation may occur within plant tissues.
The results furthermore indicate that methylated Sb is more mobile in plants than inorganic Sb species. Knowledge about this is important in risk assessments of Sb-contaminated sites, as methylation may render Sb more toxic than inorganic Sb, as it is known for arsenic As. We calculate the Rydberg and autoionization Rydberg spectra of antimony Sb from first principles by relativistic multichannel theory within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory.
Our calculation can be used to classify and assign the atomic states described in recently reported three Rydberg series and four autoionizing states. The perturbation effects on line intensity,variation and line profile are discussed.
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