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The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment.

In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated.

Regression dilution bias: tools for correction methods and sample size calculation. Random errors in measurement of a risk factor will introduce downward bias of an estimated association to a disease or a disease marker. This phenomenon is called regression dilution bias. A bias correction may be made with data from a validity study or a reliability study. In this article we give a non-technical description of designs of reliability studies with emphasis on selection of individuals for a repeated measurement, assumptions of measurement error models, and correction methods for the slope in a simple linear regression model where the dependent variable is a continuous variable.

Also, we describe situations where correction for regression dilution bias is not appropriate. The methods are illustrated with the association between insulin sensitivity measured with the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique and fasting insulin, where measurement of the latter variable carries noticeable random error.

We provide software tools for estimation of a corrected slope in a simple linear regression model assuming data for a continuous dependent variable and a continuous risk factor from a main study and an additional measurement of the risk factor in a reliability study.

Also, we supply programs for estimation of the number of individuals needed in the reliability study and for choice of its design. Our conclusion is that correction for regression dilution bias is seldom applied in epidemiological studies.

This may cause important effects of risk factors with large measurement errors to be neglected. In the course of setup modifications and re-measuring of several dimensions, the correction factors have been re-evaluated in this work. The correction factors for scatter and attenuation have been recalculated using the Monte Carlo software package EGSnrc, and a new expression has been found for the divergence correction. The obtained results decrease the measured reference air kerma rate by approximately 0.

Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR ionization chamber. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor ke and photon scattering correction factor ksc are needed.

In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. Multistage stress-strain curve correction based on an instantaneous friction factor was studied for axisymmetric uniaxial hot compression of aluminum alloy. Experimental friction factors were calculated based on continuous isothermal axisymmetric uniaxial compression tests at various deformation parameters. Then, an instantaneous friction factor equation was fitted by mathematic analysis.

After verification by comparing single-pass flow stress correction with traditional average friction factor correction , the instantaneous friction factor equation was applied to correct multistage stress-strain curves. The corrected results were reasonable and validated by multistage relative softening calculations.

This research provides a broad potential for implementing axisymmetric uniaxial compression in multistage physical simulations and friction optimization in finite element analysis. The simulation results are around 0. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

We further compute the subleading power correction induced by the three-particle quark-gluon distribution amplitudes of the B-meson at tree level employing the background gluon field approach. A radiation model for calculating atmospheric corrections to remotely sensed infrared measurements, version 2. A numerical model is developed which calculates the atmospheric corrections to infrared radiometric measurements due to absorption and emission by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone.

The corrections due to aerosols are not accounted for. The transmissions functions for water vapor, carbon dioxide, and water are given. The model requires as input the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor as determined by a standard radiosonde.

The vertical distribution of carbon dioxide is assumed to be constant. The vertical distribution of ozone is an average of observed values. The model also requires as input the spectral response function of the radiometer and the nadir angle at which the measurements were made. Calculations for four model atmospheres are presented. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements.

Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged.

Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results. Monte Carlo and experimental determination of correction factors for gamma knife perfexion small field dosimetry measurements.

Detector-, field size- and machine-specific correction factors are required for precise dosimetry measurements in small and non-standard photon fields. Calculations were performed for the solid water SW and ABS plastic phantoms, as well as for a water phantom of the same geometry.

Greater corrections of up to 6. A phantom correction of 1. The perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams. In this study, we calculated perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams by using Monte Carlo simulations.

The value for a 60 Co beam was about 1. The P wall values were from 0. Also, the chamber response with and without a 1 mm PMMA water-proofing sleeve agreed within their combined uncertainty. The calculated P stem values ranged from 0. The values were no significant difference on beam qualities. P cel for a 1 mm aluminum electrode agreed within 0. The overall perturbation factors agreed within 0. Calculating the mounting parameters for Taylor Spatial Frame correction using computed tomography.

The Taylor Spatial Frame uses a computer program-based six-axis deformity analysis. However, there is often a residual deformity after the initial correction , especially in deformities with a rotational component. This problem can be resolved by recalculating the parameters and inputting all new deformity and mounting parameters.

However, this may necessitate repeated x-rays and delay treatment. We believe that error in the mounting parameters is the main reason for most residual deformities. To prevent these problems, we describe a new calculation technique for determining the mounting parameters that uses computed tomography. This technique is especially advantageous for deformities with a rotational component.

Using this technique, exact calculation of the mounting parameters is possible and the residual deformity and number of repeated x-rays can be minimized. This new technique is an alternative method to accurately calculating the mounting parameters. Presbyopia has been a complicated problem for clinicians and researchers for centuries. Defining what constitutes presbyopia and what are its primary causes has long been a struggle for the vision and scientific community.

Although presbyopia is a normal aging process of the eye, the continuous and gradual loss of accommodation is often dreaded and feared. If presbyopia were to be considered a disease, its global burden would be enormous as it affects more than a billion people worldwide. In this dissertation, I explore factors associated with presbyopia and develop a model for explaining the onset of presbyopia. In this model, the onset of presbyopia is associated primarily with three factors ; depth of focus, focusing ability accommodation , and habitual reading or task distance.

If any of these three factors could be altered sufficiently, the onset of presbyopia could be delayed or prevented. Based on this model, I then examine possible optical methods that would be effective in correcting for presbyopia by expanding depth of focus. Two methods that have been show to be effective at expanding depth of focus include utilizing a small pupil aperture or generating higher order aberrations, particularly spherical aberration.

I compare these two optical methods through the use of simulated designs, monitor testing, and visual performance metrics and then apply them in subjects through an adaptive optics system that corrects aberrations through a wavefront aberrometer and deformable mirror. I then summarize my findings and speculate about the future of presbyopia correction. Recently the mean birth weight MBW of Japan is on the decrease. This phenomenon started in and continues up to the present as of Various factors accounting for this phenomenon have been considered and discussed by several researchers.

They were interested in social, cultural and economic factors as well as factors influencing community health status. Although the above factors seem to be important, one problem connected with calculation of MBW is worth discussing. The MBW was calculated from a frequency distribution because of a limitation of the source material.

The accuracy of calculation of statistics from a frequency distribution depends on the assumption that few frequencies fall on boundaries, but birth weight measurements are apt to fall on figures having 0 at the end because of the properties of weighing scales. Suppose that the exact weight of an infant is g. If his weight is read to the nearest figure having 0 at the end by rounding, it is recorded as g on the birth certificate. Then, in a frequency distribution whose class interval is g, his weight is treated as g in calculation of the mean.

But some improvements of the methods of weighing, for example, utilization of a scale displaying a digital value of weight may result in a greater chance that his weight is recorded as g. Then, in the same frequency distribution, his weight is treated as g in calculation of the mean.

Therefore, an improvement of the method of weighing produces the phenomenon that MBW decreases even if all the original birth weights did not change. Exact relative frequency, recorded as just g, that is mentioned secondarily in the Vital Statistics of Japan has been decreasing consistently since This year is the oldest in the above source having frequency distributions of single birth infants.

This fact shows that methods of weighing have been improved as the years pass. In this paper we tried to correct MBW by using the relative frequency. Calculation and measurement of radiation corrections for plasmon resonances in nanoparticles. The problem of plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem under the condition that the wavelengths of the incident radiation are much larger than the particle dimensions.

As the nanoparticle size increases, the quasistatic condition is no longer valid. For this reason, the accuracy of the electrostatic approximation may be compromised and appropriate radiation corrections for the calculation of resonance permittivities and resonance wavelengths are needed. In this paper, we present the radiation corrections in the framework of the eigenvalue method for plasmon mode analysis and demonstrate that the computational results accurately match analytical solutions for nanospheres and experimental data for nanorings and nanocubes.

We also demonstrate that the optical spectra of silver nanocube suspensions can be fully assigned to dipole-type resonance modes when radiation corrections are introduced. Finally, our method is used to predict the resonance wavelengths for face-to-face silver nanocube dimers on glass substrates.

These results may be useful for the indirect measurements of the gaps in the dimers from extinction cross-section observations. Purpose: Output factor determination for small fields less than 20 mm presents significant challenges due to ion chamber volume averaging and diode over-response. Measured output factor values between detectors are known to have large deviations as field sizes are decreased.

No set standard to resolve this difference in measurement exists. Published Monte Carlo derived correction factors were used to address this challenge and decrease the output factor deviation between detectors. Measurements conditions were cm SSD source to surface distance and 1.

Output factors were first normalized to a An equation expressing the relation between published Monte Carlo correction factors as a function of field size for each detector was derived. The measured output factors were then multiplied by the calculated correction factors. EBT3 gafchromic film dosimetry was used to independently validate the corrected output factors.

After applying the calculated correction factors , this deviation fell to 0 to 3. Output factors determined with film agree within 3. Conclusion: We present a practical approach to applying published Monte Carlo derived correction factors to measured small field output factors for the EDGE and A16 detectors. Using this method, we were able to decrease the percent deviation between both detectors from To evaluate the outcomes of corneal laser ablation with Q factor modification for vision correction in patients with progressive keratoconus.

All patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including uncorrected distance visual acuity UDVA , corrected distance visual acuity CDVA , subjective acceptance and corneal topography using the Pentacam. The topolyzer was used to measure the corneal asphericity Q.

Ablation was performed based on the preoperative Q values and thinnest pachymetry to obtain a target of near normal Q. This was followed by corneal collagen crosslinking to stabilize the progression. The improvement in higher-order aberrations and total aberrations were statistically significant in both groups; however, the spherical aberration showed statistically significant improvement only in Group II.

Ablation based on the preoperative Q and pachymetry for a near normal postoperative Q value appears to be an effective method to improve the visual acuity and quality in patients with keratoconus. The leading relativistic and recoil corrections to bound state g factors of particles with arbitrary spin are calculated.

It is shown that these corrections are universal for any spin and depend only on the free particle gyromagnetic ratios. To prove this universality we develop nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics NRQED for charged particles with an arbitrary spin. The coefficients in the NRQED Hamiltonian for higher spin particles are determined only by the requirements of Lorentz invariance and local charge conservation in the respective relativistic theory.

We show that universality of the leading relativistic and recoil corrections can be explained with the help of the Bargmann-Michael-Telegdi equation. Dose calculation algorithm of fast fine-heterogeneity correction for heavy charged particle radiotherapy. This work addresses computing techniques for dose calculations in treatment planning with proton and ion beams, based on an efficient kernel-convolution method referred to as grid-dose spreading GDS and accurate heterogeneity- correction method referred to as Gaussian beam splitting.

The original GDS algorithm suffered from distortion of dose distribution for beams tilted with respect to the dose-grid axes. Use of intermediate grids normal to the beam field has solved the beam-tilting distortion. Interplay of arrangement between beams and grids was found as another intrinsic source of artifact. Inclusion of rectangular-kernel convolution in beam transport, to share the beam contribution among the nearest grids in a regulatory manner, has solved the interplay problem. This algorithmic framework was applied to a tilted proton pencil beam and a broad carbon-ion beam.

In these cases, while the elementary pencil beams individually split into several tens, the calculation time increased only by several times with the GDS algorithm. The GDS and beam-splitting methods will complementarily enable accurate and efficient dose calculations for radiotherapy with protons and ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Ionization correction factors for H II regions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. A grid of photoionization models of H II regions was constructed.

The free parameters of the model grid are the hydrogen density nH in the nebular gas, filling factor , energy Lc-spectrum of ionizing nuclei, and metallicity. The chemical composition from the studies of Izotov et al. The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to F and stagnation pressures up to 6, pounds per square inch absolute.

The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters. It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: theoretical considerations.

In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference PCSR fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed VSC beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation.

Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : 1 the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and 2 the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used.

The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams.

The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing that k Q factors of composite IMRT. Accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculations based on cone-beam CT: comparison of deformable registration and image correction based methods. In this paper we compare the accuracy and robustness of these two approaches.

Radiotherapy dose distributions were re- calculated with heterogeneity correction based on the corrected CBCT and several relevant dose metrics for target and OAR volumes were calculated. The cumulative gain in the above service area is the numerator of Electron fluence correction factors for various materials in clinical electron beams.

Relative to solid water, electron fluence correction factors at the depth of dose maximum in bone, lung, aluminum, and copper for nominal electron beam energies of 9 MeV and 15 MeV of the Clinac 18 accelerator have been determined experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure depth doses in these materials. The measured relative dose at dmax in the various materials versus that of solid water, when irradiated with the same number of monitor units, has been used to calculate the ratio of electron fluence for the various materials to that of solid water.

EGSnrc with the relativistic spin option turned on was used to optimize the primary electron energy at the exit window, and to calculate depth doses in the five phantom materials using the optimized phase-space data. Monte Carlo calculated ratios of doses in each material to dose in LiF were used to convert the TLD measurements at the dose maximum into dose at the center of the TLD in the phantom material.

Electron fluence ratios of the studied materials relative to solid water vary between 0. The difference in electron fluence ratios derived from measurements and calculations ranges from Excluding the data for Cu, electron. Approximate quasiparticle correction for calculations of the energy gap in two-dimensional materials. At the same time that two-dimensional 2D systems open possibilities for new physics and applications, they present a higher challenge for electronic structure calculations , especially concerning excitations.

The achievement of a fast and accurate practical model that incorporates approximate quasiparticle corrections can further open an avenue for more reliable band structure calculations of complex systems such as interactions of 2D materials with substrates or molecules, as well as the formation of van der Waals heterostructures.

A method for rapid calculation of a flux of stimulated fluorescence of a multilayer optically dense medium with inhomogeneous distribution of the fluorophore has been developed. The light field in the medium at the excitation wavelength of fluorescence is represented by a superposition of incident collimated, incident diffuse, and reflected diffuse fluxes. A two-stream approximation is used to describe the light field in the medium at the wavelength of emission of the fluorescence. Fluxes in adjacent elementary layers of the medium and on its surface are connected by simple matrix operators that are obtained using a combination of engineering approaches of radiation-transfer theory and single-scattering approximation.

The effect of the propagation medium on the fluorescence spectra of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX that are recorded from human skin was studied, and a technique for their correction that is based on measurements and quantitative analysis of the diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin was proposed. On Aethalometer measurement uncertainties and an instrument correction factor for the Arctic. Several types of filter-based instruments are used to estimate aerosol light absorption coefficients.

Two significant results are presented based on Aethalometer measurements at six Arctic stations from to First, an alternative method of post-processing the Aethalometer data is presented, which reduces measurement noise and lowers the detection limit of the instrument more effectively than boxcar averaging. The biggest benefit of this approach can be achieved if instrument drift is minimised. Moreover, by using an attenuation threshold criterion for data post-processing, the relative uncertainty from the electronic noise of the instrument is kept constant.

At high aerosol concentrations, minimising the detection limit of the instrument is less critical. Additionally, utilising co-located filter-based absorption photometers, a correction factor is presented for the Arctic that can be used in Aethalometer corrections available in literature. The correction factor of 3. This correction factor harmonises Aethalometer attenuation coefficients with light absorption coefficients as measured by the co-located light absorption photometers.

Using one correction factor for Arctic Aethalometers has the advantage that measurements between stations become more inter-comparable. Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference PCSR fields are theoretically investigated.

Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed VSC beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below Plasticity corrections to elastically computed stress intensity factors are often included in brittle fracture evaluation procedures.

These corrections are based on the existence of a plastic zone in the vicinity of the crack tip. Plasticity effects from the results of elastic and elastic-plastic explicit flaw finite element analyses are examined for various size cracks emanating from the root of a notch in a panel and for cracks located at fillet fadii.

A failure assessment diagram FAD curve is employed to graphically c haracterize the effect of plasticity on the crack driving force. The Option 1 FAD curve of the Level 3 advanced fracture assessment procedure of British Standard PD , adjusted for stress concentration effects by a term that is a function of the applied load and the ratio of the local radius of curvature at the flaw location to the flaw depth, provides a satisfactory bound to all the FAD curves derived from the explicit flaw finite element calculations.

The adjusted FAD curve is a less restrictive plasticity correction than the plastic zone correction of Section XI for flaws embedded in plastic zones at geometric stress concentrators. This enables unnecessary conservatism to be removed from flaw evaluation procedures that utilize plasticity corrections. Productivity cost calculations in health economic evaluations: correcting for compensation mechanisms and multiplier effects. Productivity costs related to paid work are commonly calculated in economic evaluations of health technologies by multiplying the relevant number of work days lost with a wage rate estimate.

Empirical evidence on such mechanisms and their impact on productivity costs is scarce, however. This study aims to increase knowledge on how diminished productivity is compensated within firms. Moreover, it aims to explore how compensation and multiplier effects potentially affect productivity cost estimates.

Absenteeism and compensation mechanisms were measured in a randomized trial among Dutch citizens examining the cost-effectiveness of reimbursement for smoking cessation treatment. Multiplier effects were extracted from published literature. Productivity costs were calculated applying the Friction Cost Approach. Regular estimates were subsequently adjusted for i compensation during regular working hours, ii job dependent multipliers and iii both compensation and multiplier effects.

A total of respondents included in the trial were useful for inclusion in this study, based on being in paid employment, having experienced absenteeism in the preceding six months and completing the questionnaire on absenteeism and compensation mechanisms. Over half of these respondents stated that their absenteeism was compensated during normal working hours by themselves or colleagues.

Correcting for multiplier effects increased regular estimates by a quarter. To conclude, large amounts of lost production are compensated in normal hours. Productivity costs. Program calculates Z- factor for natural gas. The Fortran program called Physic presented in this article calculates the gas deviation or compressibility factor , Z, of natural gas.

The author has used the program for determining discharge-piping pressure drop. Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F can be applied to a system consisting of a disk sample and a four-probe array.

Measurements are made on isotropic graphite disks and crystalline ITO films. Factor F can correct the apparent variations of the data and lead to reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances. Here factor F is compared to other correction factors ; i. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines. When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area.

Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction factors of the sensor-measured air velocity to the average air velocity at cross sections are still lacking. A comprehensive airflow measurement was made at the Safety Research Coal Mine, Bruceton, PA, using three measuring methods including single-point reading, moving traverse, and fixed-point traverse.

The correction factors at each measuring station for both the centerline and the sensor location were calculated and are discussed. Impact of correction factors in human brain lesion-behavior inference. Statistical voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping VLBM in neurological patients with brain lesions is frequently used to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain.

Only recently, two simulation studies noted reduced anatomical validity of this method, observing the results of VLBM to be systematically misplaced by about 16 mm. However, both simulation studies differed from VLBM analyses of real data in that they lacked the proper use of two correction factors : lesion size and "sufficient lesion affection. Apparently, the misplacement is due to physiological effects of brain lesion anatomy. Voxel-wise topographies of collateral damage in the real data were generated and used to compute a metric for the inter-voxel relation of brain damage.

The latter has the potential to help in the development of new VLBM methods that provide even higher anatomical validity than currently available by the proper use of correction factors. Hum Brain Mapp , The effect of these factors must be established to optimize the technique. Transaxial images of a liver-trunk phantom filled with Tcm from 1 to Different reconstruction filters including Hanning 20,32, 64 and Butterworth 20, 32 were used. Angular samplings were performed in 3 and 6 degree increments.

VL's were calculated by multiplying the number of pixels within the ROI by the slice thickness and the x- and y- calibrations of each pixel. One or 2 pixel per slice thickness was applied in the calculation. The reconstruction filters, slice thickness and angular sampling had only minor effects on the calculated phantom volumes.

Detection of the ROI automatically by the computer was not as accurate as the manual method. Delay time correction of the gas analyzer in the calculation of anatomical dead space of the lung. By means of a mathematical model, we have studied a way to correct the delay time of the gas analyzer in order to calculate the anatomical dead space using Fowler's graphical method. The mathematical model was constructed of ten tubes of equal diameter but unequal length, so that the amount of dead space varied from tube to tube; the tubes were emptied sequentially.

The gas analyzer responds with a time lag from the input of the gas signal to the beginning of the response, followed by an exponential response output. The single breath expired volume-concentration relationship was examined with three types of expired flow patterns of which were constant, exponential and sinusoidal. The results indicate that the time correction by the lag time plus time constant of the exponential response of the gas analyzer gives an accurate estimation of anatomical dead space.

Time correction less inclusive than this, e. The magnitude of error is dependent on the flow pattern and flow rate. The time correction in this study is only for the calculation of dead space, as the corrected volume-concentration curves does not coincide with the true curve. Such correction of the output of the gas analyzer is extremely important when one needs to compare the dead spaces of different gas species at a rather faster flow rate. The central electrode correction factor for high-Z electrodes in small ionization chambers.

Recent Monte Carlo calculations of beam quality conversion factors for ion chambers that use high-Z electrodes [B. Muir and D. Rogers, Med. This report investigates the central electrode correction factor , Pcel, for these chambers. The central electrode correction factor for a given value of the beam quality specifier is different depending on the amount of filtration of the photon beam. However, in an unfiltered 6 MV beam, Pcel, varies by only 0. The difference between Pcel calculations for chambers with high-Z electrodes and TG values for a chamber with an aluminum electrode is up to 0.

The central electrode correction , which is roughly proportional to the chambers absorbed dose sensitivity, is found to be large and variable as a function of distance for chambers with high-Z and aluminum electrodes in low-energy photon fields. In this work, ionization chambers that employ high-Z electrodes have been shown to be problematic in various situations. For beam quality conversion factors , the ratio of Pcel in a beam quality Q to that in a Co beam is required; for some chambers, kQ is significantly different from current dosimetry protocol values because of central.

Federal Register , , , , Ionization chamber correction factors for MR-linacs. Previously, readings of air-filled ionization chambers have been described as being influenced by magnetic fields. To use these chambers for dosimetry in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy MRgRT , this effect must be taken into account by introducing a correction factor k B.

The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate k B for a typical reference setup for commercially available ionization chambers with different magnetic field strengths. The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of 0—2.

To validate the simulation, the influence of the magnetic field was experimentally determined for a PTW Farmer-type chamber for magnetic flux densities between 0 and 1. Simulated values for thimble-type chambers are in good agreement with experiments as well as with the results of previous publications. After further experimental validation, the results can be considered for definition of standard protocols for purposes of reference dosimetry in MRgRT.

The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of Improvement of dose calculation in radiation therapy due to metal artifact correction using the augmented likelihood image reconstruction. Metal artifacts caused by high-density implants lead to incorrectly reconstructed Hounsfield units in computed tomography images.

This can result in a loss of accuracy in dose calculation in radiation therapy. This study investigates the potential of the metal artifact reduction algorithms, Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction and linear interpolation, in improving dose calculation in the presence of metal artifacts. In order to simulate a pelvis with a double-sided total endoprosthesis, a polymethylmethacrylate phantom was equipped with two steel bars.

Artifacts were reduced by applying the Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction, a linear interpolation, and a manual correction approach. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans have been created with double arc rotations with and without avoidance sectors that mask out the prosthesis. The irradiation plans were analyzed for variations in the dose distribution and their homogeneity. Dosimetric measurements were performed using isocentric positioned ionization chambers. Irradiation plans based on images containing artifacts lead to a dose error in the isocenter of up to 8.

Corrections with the Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction reduce this dose error to 2. When applying artifact correction , the dose homogeneity was slightly improved for all investigated methods. Furthermore, the calculated mean doses are higher for rectum and bladder if avoidance sectors are applied.

Streaking artifacts cause an imprecise dose calculation within irradiation plans. Using a metal artifact correction algorithm, the planning accuracy can be significantly improved. Best results were accomplished using the Augmented Likelihood Image. Determination of small-field correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers using a semiempirical method. A semiempirical method based on the averaging effect of the sensitive volumes of different air-filled ionization chambers ICs was employed to approximate the correction factors for beam quality produced from the difference in the sizes of the reference field and small fields.

We measured the output factors using several cylindrical ICs and calculated the correction factors using a mathematical method similar to deconvolution; in the method, we modeled the variable and inhomogeneous energy fluence function within the chamber cavity. The parameters of the modeled function and the correction factors were determined by solving a developed system of equations as well as on the basis of the measurement data and the geometry of the chambers.

The proposed method can be useful in case the MC simulation would not be applicable for the clinical settings. For each A simple and accurate method for calculation of the structure factor of interacting charged spheres. Calculation of the structure factor of a system of interacting charged spheres based on the Ginoza solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation has been developed and implemented on a stand-alone spreadsheet.

This facilitates direct interactive numerical and graphical comparisons between experimental structure factors with the pioneering theoretical model of Hayter-Penfold that uses the Hansen-Hayter renormalisation correction. The method is used to fit example experimental structure factors obtained from the small-angle neutron scattering of a well-characterised charged micelle system, demonstrating that this implementation, available in the supplementary information, gives identical results to the Hayter-Penfold-Hansen approach for the structure factor , S q and provides direct access to the pair correlation function, g r.

Additionally, the intermediate calculations and outputs can be readily accessed and modified within the familiar spreadsheet environment, along with information on the normalisation procedure. Multiconfiguration calculations of electronic isotope shift factors in Al i.

The present work reports results from systematic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of electronic isotope shift factors for a set of transitions between low-lying levels of neutral aluminium. These electronic quantities together with observed isotope shifts between different pairs of isotopes provide the changes in mean-square charge radii of the atomic nuclei. Two computational approaches are adopted for the estimation of the mass- and field-shift factors.

Within these approaches, different models for electron correlation are explored in a systematic way to determine a reliable computational strategy and to estimate theoretical error bars of the isotope shift factors. Real-time correction of tsunami site effect by frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor. For tsunami early warning, I developed frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of tsunami site response.

In this study, I assumed that a tsunami waveform at an observing point could be modeled by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response i. If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore tsunami waveform provides tsunami prediction at coast in real time.

In this study, tsunami waveforms calculated by tsunami numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical tsunami simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations.

The resultant tsunami waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan.

The averaged tsunami-height spectral ratio i. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of tsunami-height amplification due to the site effect. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams.

This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors kQ tabulated in IAEA TRS for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers based on the already tabulated values. The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality 60Co.

This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams spread-out Bragg peak field and monoenergetic beams pseudo-monoenergetic field were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent—being higher than the tabulated values.

These results support the suggestion of previous publications that the IAEA TRS reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth.

For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other—except for the IBA FCG, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0. Explicit calculation of the two-loop corrections to the chiral magnetic effect with the NJL model. The chiral magnetic effect CME is usually believed to not receive higher-order corrections due to the nonrenormalization of the AVV triangle diagram in the framework of quantum field theory.

However, the CME-relevant triangle, which is obtained by expanding the current-current correlation, requires zero momentum on the axial vertex and is not equivalent to the general AVV triangle when taking the zero-momentum limit owing to the infrared problem on the axial vertex.

Therefore, it is still significant to check if there exists perturbative higher-order corrections to the current-current correlation. The result shows the two-loop corrections to the CME conductivity are zero, which confirms the nonrenomalization of CME conductivity. Factor F is applied to a system consisting of a rectangular parallelepiped sample and a square four-probe array. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements are made on isotropic graphites and crystalline ITO films.

Factor F corrects experimental data and leads to reasonable resistivity and sheet resistance. A model-free method for mass spectrometer response correction. A new method for correction of mass spectrometer output signals is described. Response-time distortion is reduced independently of any model of mass spectrometer behavior. The delay of the system is found first from the cross-correlation function of a step change and its response. A two-sided time-domain digital correction filter deconvolution filter is generated next from the same step response data using a regression procedure.

Other data are corrected using the filter and delay. The mean squared error between a step response and a step is reduced considerably more after the use of a deconvolution filter than after the application of a second-order model correction. O2 consumption and CO2 production values calculated from data corrupted by a simulated dynamic process return to near the uncorrupted values after correction. Although a clean step response or the ensemble average of several responses contaminated with noise is needed for the generation of the filter, random noise of magnitude not above 0.

Shading correction for cone-beam CT in radiotherapy: validation of dose calculation accuracy using clinical images. We previously developed a prior-image based correction method to restore HU values and improve uniformity of CBCT images. Dose distributions were calculated based on each patient's original RT plan and using CBCT image values for tissue heterogeneity correction. Clinically relevant dose metrics were calculated e.

Accuracy of CBCT based dose metrics was determined using an "override ratio" method where the ratio of the dose metric to that calculated on a bulk-density assigned version of the image is assumed to be constant for each patient, allowing comparison to "gold standard" CT.

Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination.

Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics.

Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector PSD , two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine.

The Edge diode exhibits less than 1. Field sizes larger than 1. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for. Calculations of total gas emissivities of gas mixtures containing several radiatively active species require corrections for band overlapping. These charts are applicable in the 0. A correction scheme for a simplified analytical random walk model algorithm of proton dose calculation in distal Bragg peak regions.

The lateral homogeneity assumption is used in most analytical algorithms for proton dose, such as the pencil-beam algorithms and our simplified analytical random walk model. To improve the dose calculation in the distal fall-off region in heterogeneous media, we analyzed primary proton fluence near heterogeneous media and propose to calculate the lateral fluence with voxel-specific Gaussian distributions. The lateral fluence from a beamlet is no longer expressed by a single Gaussian for all the lateral voxels, but by a specific Gaussian for each lateral voxel.

He said, "We have seen what the proposals are and we would meet the financial break even rules. We as Manchester United have always been run professionally and will continue to be run professionally. Only a club's outgoings in transfers, employee benefits including wages , amortisation of transfers, finance costs and dividends will be counted over income from gate receipts, TV revenue, advertising, merchandising, disposal of tangible fixed assets, finance, sales of players and prize money.

Any money spent on infrastructure, training facilities or youth development will not be included. One of the major criticisms of FFP is the possibility of solidifying the so-called big clubs which generate largest revenue and profits, and can consequently spend more money on transfers. The financial gulf between successful clubs in the top-tier of European league has had an impact domestically, most notably in the Premier League, where for approximately a dozen years from to there had been an almost complete dominance of the three major domestic English competitions by just four clubs Arsenal, Liverpool, Chelsea, and Manchester United.

During this period, the lack of competition for lucrative Champions League football in England from outside of those four clubs was frequently criticised. More recently, however, the grip on the four top places in the Premier League that enable automatic entry into the Champions League competition by the incumbent "Big 4" clubs has been heavily eroded in more recent seasons due to the rise in competitive performance of both Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City and the relative decline of Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester United and Liverpool.

Since the season the original "Big 4" clubs have gained no more than 2 of the top 4 positions each year. Some forums have expressed concern at the potential risk that as clubs become ever desperate to raise "allowable" revenue which will positively affect their balance sheet, they will indulge in questionable U. For example, many top clubs raise money from selling sponsorship for their playing as well as their away and training kit, and other titles like the "official logistics partner" Like Serveto for Barcelona or "official marine engine partner" Like Yanmar for Manchester United.

Several top clubs have similar deals. In addition, there remains the issue of widely differing tax rates and social security costs to which the European leagues are subject, meaning that some clubs have to pay a player much higher gross wages in order for him to be left with the same net salary as if he belonged to a club in another country. In addition, the UEFA guidance states that each club's accounts must be audited under the national accountancy conditions applicable in their particular country, which may vary.

One area of concern for English clubs is the practice of third-party ownership. The advantage for clubs is that they can make big savings from not having to pay the full transfer value of a player and can also make other financial gains, that is, from selling on a player's image rights.

Following the introduction of FFP, the Premiership unsuccessfully lobbied UEFA to review the situation to avoid English clubs being disadvantaged, [57] and in October , the leading sports lawyer Jean-Louis Dupont told the BBC that the Premier League's third-party ownership rules were not legitimate and that a legal challenge to overturn them would have a "very, very good chance of succeeding".

On 4 February , UEFA confirmed that it intended to ban third-party ownership of players, stating, "We think this should be the case all over the world, certainly all over Europe. Another big issue for English clubs is the substantial payments made to the lower leagues in the football "pyramid" and to other charities out of their joint Sky TV deal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Football cultural fair-play rules in UEFA leagues. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. July This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved 5 March The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June CNN News. BBC Sport. Archived from the original PDF on 17 April Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original PDF on 15 May Retrieved 16 July Lazio - Page not Found".

Lazio Page not Found". Real Madrid. September Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 13 September For example, youth product does not have an asset value given that there is no formation cost of that capital, such as a transfer fee; the asset value would also be amortized which the residual value of the contract in accounting did not reflect the true market value; lastly, there is a lack of protocol to make impairment on flops.

Bayern Munich. Archived from the original PDF on 21 August Retrieved 7 July Schalke Archived from the original on 8 October UK Parliament.

SPORTS SPREAD BETTING ARBITRAGE

Stanke, Monika, E-mail: monika fizyka. Algorithms for calculating the leading mass-velocity MV and Darwin D relativistic corrections are derived for electronic wave functions expanded in terms of n-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers and without pre-exponential angular factors. The algorithms are general and can be applied in calculations of systems with an arbitrary number of electrons. Understanding decimal numbers: a foundation for correct calculations.

This paper reports on the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve nursing students' conceptual understanding of decimal numbers. Results of recent intervention studies have indicated some success at improving nursing students' numeracy through practice in applying procedural rules for calculation and working in real or simulated practical contexts.

However, in this we identified a fundamental problem: a significant minority of students had an inadequate understanding of decimal numbers. The intervention aimed to improve nursing students' basic understanding of the size of decimal numbers, so that, firstly, calculation rules are more meaningful, and secondly, students can interpret decimal numbers whether digital output or results of calculations sensibly.

A well-researched, time-efficient diagnostic instrument was used to identify individuals with an inadequate understanding of decimal numbers. We describe a remedial intervention that resulted in significant improvement on a delayed post-intervention test. We conclude that nurse educators should consider diagnosing and, as necessary, plan for remediation of students' foundational understanding of decimal numbers before teaching procedural rules. Correct fair market value calculation needed to avoid regulatory challenges.

In valuing a physician practice for acquisition, it is important for buyers and sellers to distinguish between fair market value and strategic value. Although many buyers would willingly pay for the strategic value of a practice, tax-exempt buyers are required by law to consider only the fair market value in setting a bid price.

Valuators must adjust group earnings to exclude items that do not apply to any willing seller and include items that do apply to any willing seller to arrive at the fair market value of the practice. In addition, the weighted average cost of capital WACC , which becomes the discount rate in the valuation model, is critical to the measure of value of the practice.

Small medical practices are assumed to have few hard assets and little long-term debt, and the WACC is calculated on the basis of those assumptions. When a small practice has considerable debt, however, this calculated WACC may be inappropriate for valuing the practice. In every case, evidence that shows that a transaction has been negotiated "at arm's length" should stave off any regulatory challenge.

Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters. General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e x is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage.

In terms of e x , a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements. Assume that a motor vehicle generates a maximum observed sound level reading of 86 dB A during a An optimized method to calculate error correction capability of tool influence function in frequency domain.

An optimized method to calculate error correction capability of tool influence function TIF in certain polishing conditions will be proposed based on smoothing spectral function. The basic mathematical model for this method will be established in theory.

A set of polishing experimental data with rigid conformal tool is used to validate the optimized method. The calculated results can quantitatively indicate error correction capability of TIF for different spatial frequency errors in certain polishing conditions. The comparative analysis with previous method shows that the optimized method is simpler in form and can get the same accuracy results with less calculating time in contrast to previous method.

PubMed Central. Based on a survey of researchers in the fields of ophthalmology and mathematics, we obtained the real impact ranking of sample journals in the minds of peer experts. The correlations between various IFs and questionnaire score were analyzed to verify their journal evaluation effects. The results show that it is scientific and reasonable to use five corrective IFs for journal evaluation for both ophthalmology and mathematics. In conclusion, not all disciplinary journal IF need correction.

The results in the current paper show that to correct the IF of ophthalmologic journals may be valuable, but it seems to be meaningless for mathematic journals. Recurrence is common after hallux valgus corrective surgery. Although many investigators have studied the risk factors associated with a suboptimal hallux position at the end of long-term follow-up, few have evaluated the factors associated with actual early loss of correction.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the predictors of lateral deviation of the hallux during the postoperative period. We evaluated the demographic data, preoperative severity of the hallux valgus, other angular measurements characterizing underlying deformities, amount of hallux valgus correction , and postoperative alignment of the corrected hallux valgus for associations with recurrence.

After adjusting for the covariates, the only factor associated with recurrence was the postoperative tibial sesamoid position. Published by Elsevier Inc. Purpose: Computed tomography CT artifacts can severely degrade dose calculation accuracy in proton therapy.

Prompted by the recently increased popularity of magnetic resonance imaging MRI in the radiation therapy clinic, we developed an MRI-based CT artifact correction method for improving the accuracy of proton range calculations. The registration was fine-tuned on a slice-by-slice basis by using 2D DIR. For a proof-of-concept validation, metal artifacts were simulated on a reference data set.

Proton range was calculated using reference, artifactual, and corrected images to quantify the reduction in proton range error. The correction method was applied to 4 unique clinical cases. Results: The correction method resulted in substantial artifact reduction, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

On respective simulated brain and head and neck CT images, the mean error was reduced from and HU to and 92 HU after correction. Correspondingly, the absolute mean proton range errors of 2. Orbit-orbit relativistic correction calculated with all-electron molecular explicitly correlated Gaussians. An algorithm for calculating the first-order electronic orbit-orbit magnetic interaction correction for an electronic wave function expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated molecular Gaussian ECG functions with shifted centers is derived and implemented.

The algorithm is tested in calculations concerning the H 2 molecule. The PESs will be used to determine rovibrational spectra of the systems. On the p dis correction factor for cylindrical chambers. The authors of a recent paper Wang and Rogers Phys. They conclude that an 'unreasonable normalization at dmax' of the ionization chambers response led to incorrect results, and for the IAEA TRS Code of Practice, which uses ratios of those results, 'the difference in the correction factors can lead to a beam calibration deviation of more than 0.

The present work critically examines and questions some of the claims and generalized conclusions of the paper. It is demonstrated that for real, commercial Farmer-like chambers, the possible deviations in absorbed dose would be much smaller typically 0.

Differences of the order of 0. This work also raises concerns on the proposed value of pdis for Farmer chambers at the reference quality of 60Co in relation to their impact on electron beam dosimetry, both for direct dose determination using these chambers and for the cross-calibration of plane-parallel chambers.

This would yield a severe discrepancy with the current good agreement between. Calculation of correct settings for the controls of a diagnostic x-ray machine was established as feasible in a microcomputer with 4K memory. The cost effectiveness and other findings in the application of this method are discussed. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement.

Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y. In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor : the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons.

The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to 1 neutron counting errors; 2 geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and 3 quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions.

This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance. In the so-called isothermal condition i. In this study, correction of the real evaporative heat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method.

Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method.

It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated. Regression dilution bias: tools for correction methods and sample size calculation. Random errors in measurement of a risk factor will introduce downward bias of an estimated association to a disease or a disease marker.

This phenomenon is called regression dilution bias. A bias correction may be made with data from a validity study or a reliability study. In this article we give a non-technical description of designs of reliability studies with emphasis on selection of individuals for a repeated measurement, assumptions of measurement error models, and correction methods for the slope in a simple linear regression model where the dependent variable is a continuous variable. Also, we describe situations where correction for regression dilution bias is not appropriate.

The methods are illustrated with the association between insulin sensitivity measured with the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique and fasting insulin, where measurement of the latter variable carries noticeable random error. We provide software tools for estimation of a corrected slope in a simple linear regression model assuming data for a continuous dependent variable and a continuous risk factor from a main study and an additional measurement of the risk factor in a reliability study.

Also, we supply programs for estimation of the number of individuals needed in the reliability study and for choice of its design. Our conclusion is that correction for regression dilution bias is seldom applied in epidemiological studies. This may cause important effects of risk factors with large measurement errors to be neglected. In the course of setup modifications and re-measuring of several dimensions, the correction factors have been re-evaluated in this work.

The correction factors for scatter and attenuation have been recalculated using the Monte Carlo software package EGSnrc, and a new expression has been found for the divergence correction. The obtained results decrease the measured reference air kerma rate by approximately 0. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR ionization chamber.

This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor ke and photon scattering correction factor ksc are needed. In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. Multistage stress-strain curve correction based on an instantaneous friction factor was studied for axisymmetric uniaxial hot compression of aluminum alloy.

Experimental friction factors were calculated based on continuous isothermal axisymmetric uniaxial compression tests at various deformation parameters. Then, an instantaneous friction factor equation was fitted by mathematic analysis. After verification by comparing single-pass flow stress correction with traditional average friction factor correction , the instantaneous friction factor equation was applied to correct multistage stress-strain curves.

The corrected results were reasonable and validated by multistage relative softening calculations. This research provides a broad potential for implementing axisymmetric uniaxial compression in multistage physical simulations and friction optimization in finite element analysis. The simulation results are around 0. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

We further compute the subleading power correction induced by the three-particle quark-gluon distribution amplitudes of the B-meson at tree level employing the background gluon field approach. A radiation model for calculating atmospheric corrections to remotely sensed infrared measurements, version 2. A numerical model is developed which calculates the atmospheric corrections to infrared radiometric measurements due to absorption and emission by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone.

The corrections due to aerosols are not accounted for. The transmissions functions for water vapor, carbon dioxide, and water are given. The model requires as input the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor as determined by a standard radiosonde. The vertical distribution of carbon dioxide is assumed to be constant. The vertical distribution of ozone is an average of observed values. The model also requires as input the spectral response function of the radiometer and the nadir angle at which the measurements were made.

Calculations for four model atmospheres are presented. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases.

Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

Monte Carlo and experimental determination of correction factors for gamma knife perfexion small field dosimetry measurements. Detector-, field size- and machine-specific correction factors are required for precise dosimetry measurements in small and non-standard photon fields.

Calculations were performed for the solid water SW and ABS plastic phantoms, as well as for a water phantom of the same geometry. Greater corrections of up to 6. A phantom correction of 1. The perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams. In this study, we calculated perturbation correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams by using Monte Carlo simulations.

The value for a 60 Co beam was about 1. The P wall values were from 0. Also, the chamber response with and without a 1 mm PMMA water-proofing sleeve agreed within their combined uncertainty. The calculated P stem values ranged from 0. The values were no significant difference on beam qualities. P cel for a 1 mm aluminum electrode agreed within 0.

The overall perturbation factors agreed within 0. Calculating the mounting parameters for Taylor Spatial Frame correction using computed tomography. The Taylor Spatial Frame uses a computer program-based six-axis deformity analysis.

However, there is often a residual deformity after the initial correction , especially in deformities with a rotational component. This problem can be resolved by recalculating the parameters and inputting all new deformity and mounting parameters. However, this may necessitate repeated x-rays and delay treatment. We believe that error in the mounting parameters is the main reason for most residual deformities. To prevent these problems, we describe a new calculation technique for determining the mounting parameters that uses computed tomography.

This technique is especially advantageous for deformities with a rotational component. Using this technique, exact calculation of the mounting parameters is possible and the residual deformity and number of repeated x-rays can be minimized. This new technique is an alternative method to accurately calculating the mounting parameters.

Presbyopia has been a complicated problem for clinicians and researchers for centuries. Defining what constitutes presbyopia and what are its primary causes has long been a struggle for the vision and scientific community. Although presbyopia is a normal aging process of the eye, the continuous and gradual loss of accommodation is often dreaded and feared.

If presbyopia were to be considered a disease, its global burden would be enormous as it affects more than a billion people worldwide. In this dissertation, I explore factors associated with presbyopia and develop a model for explaining the onset of presbyopia.

In this model, the onset of presbyopia is associated primarily with three factors ; depth of focus, focusing ability accommodation , and habitual reading or task distance. If any of these three factors could be altered sufficiently, the onset of presbyopia could be delayed or prevented. Based on this model, I then examine possible optical methods that would be effective in correcting for presbyopia by expanding depth of focus.

Two methods that have been show to be effective at expanding depth of focus include utilizing a small pupil aperture or generating higher order aberrations, particularly spherical aberration. I compare these two optical methods through the use of simulated designs, monitor testing, and visual performance metrics and then apply them in subjects through an adaptive optics system that corrects aberrations through a wavefront aberrometer and deformable mirror.

I then summarize my findings and speculate about the future of presbyopia correction. Recently the mean birth weight MBW of Japan is on the decrease. This phenomenon started in and continues up to the present as of Various factors accounting for this phenomenon have been considered and discussed by several researchers. They were interested in social, cultural and economic factors as well as factors influencing community health status.

Although the above factors seem to be important, one problem connected with calculation of MBW is worth discussing. The MBW was calculated from a frequency distribution because of a limitation of the source material. The accuracy of calculation of statistics from a frequency distribution depends on the assumption that few frequencies fall on boundaries, but birth weight measurements are apt to fall on figures having 0 at the end because of the properties of weighing scales.

Suppose that the exact weight of an infant is g. If his weight is read to the nearest figure having 0 at the end by rounding, it is recorded as g on the birth certificate. Then, in a frequency distribution whose class interval is g, his weight is treated as g in calculation of the mean. But some improvements of the methods of weighing, for example, utilization of a scale displaying a digital value of weight may result in a greater chance that his weight is recorded as g.

Then, in the same frequency distribution, his weight is treated as g in calculation of the mean. Therefore, an improvement of the method of weighing produces the phenomenon that MBW decreases even if all the original birth weights did not change. Exact relative frequency, recorded as just g, that is mentioned secondarily in the Vital Statistics of Japan has been decreasing consistently since This year is the oldest in the above source having frequency distributions of single birth infants.

This fact shows that methods of weighing have been improved as the years pass. In this paper we tried to correct MBW by using the relative frequency. Calculation and measurement of radiation corrections for plasmon resonances in nanoparticles. The problem of plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem under the condition that the wavelengths of the incident radiation are much larger than the particle dimensions.

As the nanoparticle size increases, the quasistatic condition is no longer valid. For this reason, the accuracy of the electrostatic approximation may be compromised and appropriate radiation corrections for the calculation of resonance permittivities and resonance wavelengths are needed. In this paper, we present the radiation corrections in the framework of the eigenvalue method for plasmon mode analysis and demonstrate that the computational results accurately match analytical solutions for nanospheres and experimental data for nanorings and nanocubes.

We also demonstrate that the optical spectra of silver nanocube suspensions can be fully assigned to dipole-type resonance modes when radiation corrections are introduced. Finally, our method is used to predict the resonance wavelengths for face-to-face silver nanocube dimers on glass substrates. These results may be useful for the indirect measurements of the gaps in the dimers from extinction cross-section observations. Purpose: Output factor determination for small fields less than 20 mm presents significant challenges due to ion chamber volume averaging and diode over-response.

Measured output factor values between detectors are known to have large deviations as field sizes are decreased. No set standard to resolve this difference in measurement exists. Published Monte Carlo derived correction factors were used to address this challenge and decrease the output factor deviation between detectors.

Measurements conditions were cm SSD source to surface distance and 1. Output factors were first normalized to a An equation expressing the relation between published Monte Carlo correction factors as a function of field size for each detector was derived.

The measured output factors were then multiplied by the calculated correction factors. EBT3 gafchromic film dosimetry was used to independently validate the corrected output factors. After applying the calculated correction factors , this deviation fell to 0 to 3. Output factors determined with film agree within 3. Conclusion: We present a practical approach to applying published Monte Carlo derived correction factors to measured small field output factors for the EDGE and A16 detectors.

Using this method, we were able to decrease the percent deviation between both detectors from To evaluate the outcomes of corneal laser ablation with Q factor modification for vision correction in patients with progressive keratoconus. All patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including uncorrected distance visual acuity UDVA , corrected distance visual acuity CDVA , subjective acceptance and corneal topography using the Pentacam. The topolyzer was used to measure the corneal asphericity Q.

Ablation was performed based on the preoperative Q values and thinnest pachymetry to obtain a target of near normal Q. This was followed by corneal collagen crosslinking to stabilize the progression. The improvement in higher-order aberrations and total aberrations were statistically significant in both groups; however, the spherical aberration showed statistically significant improvement only in Group II.

Ablation based on the preoperative Q and pachymetry for a near normal postoperative Q value appears to be an effective method to improve the visual acuity and quality in patients with keratoconus. The leading relativistic and recoil corrections to bound state g factors of particles with arbitrary spin are calculated.

It is shown that these corrections are universal for any spin and depend only on the free particle gyromagnetic ratios. To prove this universality we develop nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics NRQED for charged particles with an arbitrary spin. The coefficients in the NRQED Hamiltonian for higher spin particles are determined only by the requirements of Lorentz invariance and local charge conservation in the respective relativistic theory.

We show that universality of the leading relativistic and recoil corrections can be explained with the help of the Bargmann-Michael-Telegdi equation. Dose calculation algorithm of fast fine-heterogeneity correction for heavy charged particle radiotherapy.

This work addresses computing techniques for dose calculations in treatment planning with proton and ion beams, based on an efficient kernel-convolution method referred to as grid-dose spreading GDS and accurate heterogeneity- correction method referred to as Gaussian beam splitting. The original GDS algorithm suffered from distortion of dose distribution for beams tilted with respect to the dose-grid axes. Use of intermediate grids normal to the beam field has solved the beam-tilting distortion.

Interplay of arrangement between beams and grids was found as another intrinsic source of artifact. Inclusion of rectangular-kernel convolution in beam transport, to share the beam contribution among the nearest grids in a regulatory manner, has solved the interplay problem. This algorithmic framework was applied to a tilted proton pencil beam and a broad carbon-ion beam. In these cases, while the elementary pencil beams individually split into several tens, the calculation time increased only by several times with the GDS algorithm.

The GDS and beam-splitting methods will complementarily enable accurate and efficient dose calculations for radiotherapy with protons and ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Ionization correction factors for H II regions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. A grid of photoionization models of H II regions was constructed. The free parameters of the model grid are the hydrogen density nH in the nebular gas, filling factor , energy Lc-spectrum of ionizing nuclei, and metallicity.

The chemical composition from the studies of Izotov et al. The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to F and stagnation pressures up to 6, pounds per square inch absolute. The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters.

It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: theoretical considerations. In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference PCSR fields are theoretically investigated.

The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed VSC beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation.

Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : 1 the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and 2 the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used.

The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams.

The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing that k Q factors of composite IMRT. Accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculations based on cone-beam CT: comparison of deformable registration and image correction based methods. In this paper we compare the accuracy and robustness of these two approaches. Radiotherapy dose distributions were re- calculated with heterogeneity correction based on the corrected CBCT and several relevant dose metrics for target and OAR volumes were calculated.

The cumulative gain in the above service area is the numerator of Electron fluence correction factors for various materials in clinical electron beams. Relative to solid water, electron fluence correction factors at the depth of dose maximum in bone, lung, aluminum, and copper for nominal electron beam energies of 9 MeV and 15 MeV of the Clinac 18 accelerator have been determined experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculation.

Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure depth doses in these materials. The measured relative dose at dmax in the various materials versus that of solid water, when irradiated with the same number of monitor units, has been used to calculate the ratio of electron fluence for the various materials to that of solid water.

EGSnrc with the relativistic spin option turned on was used to optimize the primary electron energy at the exit window, and to calculate depth doses in the five phantom materials using the optimized phase-space data. Monte Carlo calculated ratios of doses in each material to dose in LiF were used to convert the TLD measurements at the dose maximum into dose at the center of the TLD in the phantom material.

Electron fluence ratios of the studied materials relative to solid water vary between 0. The difference in electron fluence ratios derived from measurements and calculations ranges from Excluding the data for Cu, electron. Approximate quasiparticle correction for calculations of the energy gap in two-dimensional materials.

At the same time that two-dimensional 2D systems open possibilities for new physics and applications, they present a higher challenge for electronic structure calculations , especially concerning excitations. The achievement of a fast and accurate practical model that incorporates approximate quasiparticle corrections can further open an avenue for more reliable band structure calculations of complex systems such as interactions of 2D materials with substrates or molecules, as well as the formation of van der Waals heterostructures.

A method for rapid calculation of a flux of stimulated fluorescence of a multilayer optically dense medium with inhomogeneous distribution of the fluorophore has been developed. The light field in the medium at the excitation wavelength of fluorescence is represented by a superposition of incident collimated, incident diffuse, and reflected diffuse fluxes. A two-stream approximation is used to describe the light field in the medium at the wavelength of emission of the fluorescence.

Fluxes in adjacent elementary layers of the medium and on its surface are connected by simple matrix operators that are obtained using a combination of engineering approaches of radiation-transfer theory and single-scattering approximation.

The effect of the propagation medium on the fluorescence spectra of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX that are recorded from human skin was studied, and a technique for their correction that is based on measurements and quantitative analysis of the diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin was proposed. On Aethalometer measurement uncertainties and an instrument correction factor for the Arctic. Several types of filter-based instruments are used to estimate aerosol light absorption coefficients.

Two significant results are presented based on Aethalometer measurements at six Arctic stations from to First, an alternative method of post-processing the Aethalometer data is presented, which reduces measurement noise and lowers the detection limit of the instrument more effectively than boxcar averaging.

The biggest benefit of this approach can be achieved if instrument drift is minimised. Moreover, by using an attenuation threshold criterion for data post-processing, the relative uncertainty from the electronic noise of the instrument is kept constant. At high aerosol concentrations, minimising the detection limit of the instrument is less critical. Additionally, utilising co-located filter-based absorption photometers, a correction factor is presented for the Arctic that can be used in Aethalometer corrections available in literature.

The correction factor of 3. This correction factor harmonises Aethalometer attenuation coefficients with light absorption coefficients as measured by the co-located light absorption photometers. Using one correction factor for Arctic Aethalometers has the advantage that measurements between stations become more inter-comparable. Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference PCSR fields are theoretically investigated.

Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed VSC beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below Plasticity corrections to elastically computed stress intensity factors are often included in brittle fracture evaluation procedures.

These corrections are based on the existence of a plastic zone in the vicinity of the crack tip. Plasticity effects from the results of elastic and elastic-plastic explicit flaw finite element analyses are examined for various size cracks emanating from the root of a notch in a panel and for cracks located at fillet fadii. A failure assessment diagram FAD curve is employed to graphically c haracterize the effect of plasticity on the crack driving force.

The Option 1 FAD curve of the Level 3 advanced fracture assessment procedure of British Standard PD , adjusted for stress concentration effects by a term that is a function of the applied load and the ratio of the local radius of curvature at the flaw location to the flaw depth, provides a satisfactory bound to all the FAD curves derived from the explicit flaw finite element calculations. The adjusted FAD curve is a less restrictive plasticity correction than the plastic zone correction of Section XI for flaws embedded in plastic zones at geometric stress concentrators.

This enables unnecessary conservatism to be removed from flaw evaluation procedures that utilize plasticity corrections. Productivity cost calculations in health economic evaluations: correcting for compensation mechanisms and multiplier effects. Productivity costs related to paid work are commonly calculated in economic evaluations of health technologies by multiplying the relevant number of work days lost with a wage rate estimate.

Empirical evidence on such mechanisms and their impact on productivity costs is scarce, however. This study aims to increase knowledge on how diminished productivity is compensated within firms. Moreover, it aims to explore how compensation and multiplier effects potentially affect productivity cost estimates.

Absenteeism and compensation mechanisms were measured in a randomized trial among Dutch citizens examining the cost-effectiveness of reimbursement for smoking cessation treatment. Multiplier effects were extracted from published literature. Productivity costs were calculated applying the Friction Cost Approach. Regular estimates were subsequently adjusted for i compensation during regular working hours, ii job dependent multipliers and iii both compensation and multiplier effects.

A total of respondents included in the trial were useful for inclusion in this study, based on being in paid employment, having experienced absenteeism in the preceding six months and completing the questionnaire on absenteeism and compensation mechanisms. Over half of these respondents stated that their absenteeism was compensated during normal working hours by themselves or colleagues.

Correcting for multiplier effects increased regular estimates by a quarter. To conclude, large amounts of lost production are compensated in normal hours. Productivity costs. Program calculates Z- factor for natural gas. The Fortran program called Physic presented in this article calculates the gas deviation or compressibility factor , Z, of natural gas. The author has used the program for determining discharge-piping pressure drop.

Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F can be applied to a system consisting of a disk sample and a four-probe array. Measurements are made on isotropic graphite disks and crystalline ITO films.

Factor F can correct the apparent variations of the data and lead to reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances. Here factor F is compared to other correction factors ; i. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines. When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area.

Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction factors of the sensor-measured air velocity to the average air velocity at cross sections are still lacking. A comprehensive airflow measurement was made at the Safety Research Coal Mine, Bruceton, PA, using three measuring methods including single-point reading, moving traverse, and fixed-point traverse.

The correction factors at each measuring station for both the centerline and the sensor location were calculated and are discussed. Impact of correction factors in human brain lesion-behavior inference. Statistical voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping VLBM in neurological patients with brain lesions is frequently used to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain.

Only recently, two simulation studies noted reduced anatomical validity of this method, observing the results of VLBM to be systematically misplaced by about 16 mm. However, both simulation studies differed from VLBM analyses of real data in that they lacked the proper use of two correction factors : lesion size and "sufficient lesion affection. Apparently, the misplacement is due to physiological effects of brain lesion anatomy. Voxel-wise topographies of collateral damage in the real data were generated and used to compute a metric for the inter-voxel relation of brain damage.

The latter has the potential to help in the development of new VLBM methods that provide even higher anatomical validity than currently available by the proper use of correction factors. Hum Brain Mapp , The effect of these factors must be established to optimize the technique.

Transaxial images of a liver-trunk phantom filled with Tcm from 1 to Different reconstruction filters including Hanning 20,32, 64 and Butterworth 20, 32 were used. Angular samplings were performed in 3 and 6 degree increments. VL's were calculated by multiplying the number of pixels within the ROI by the slice thickness and the x- and y- calibrations of each pixel. One or 2 pixel per slice thickness was applied in the calculation. The reconstruction filters, slice thickness and angular sampling had only minor effects on the calculated phantom volumes.

Detection of the ROI automatically by the computer was not as accurate as the manual method. Delay time correction of the gas analyzer in the calculation of anatomical dead space of the lung. By means of a mathematical model, we have studied a way to correct the delay time of the gas analyzer in order to calculate the anatomical dead space using Fowler's graphical method. The mathematical model was constructed of ten tubes of equal diameter but unequal length, so that the amount of dead space varied from tube to tube; the tubes were emptied sequentially.

The gas analyzer responds with a time lag from the input of the gas signal to the beginning of the response, followed by an exponential response output. The single breath expired volume-concentration relationship was examined with three types of expired flow patterns of which were constant, exponential and sinusoidal. The results indicate that the time correction by the lag time plus time constant of the exponential response of the gas analyzer gives an accurate estimation of anatomical dead space.

Time correction less inclusive than this, e. The magnitude of error is dependent on the flow pattern and flow rate. The time correction in this study is only for the calculation of dead space, as the corrected volume-concentration curves does not coincide with the true curve. Such correction of the output of the gas analyzer is extremely important when one needs to compare the dead spaces of different gas species at a rather faster flow rate.

The central electrode correction factor for high-Z electrodes in small ionization chambers. Recent Monte Carlo calculations of beam quality conversion factors for ion chambers that use high-Z electrodes [B. Muir and D. Rogers, Med. This report investigates the central electrode correction factor , Pcel, for these chambers. The central electrode correction factor for a given value of the beam quality specifier is different depending on the amount of filtration of the photon beam.

However, in an unfiltered 6 MV beam, Pcel, varies by only 0. The difference between Pcel calculations for chambers with high-Z electrodes and TG values for a chamber with an aluminum electrode is up to 0. The central electrode correction , which is roughly proportional to the chambers absorbed dose sensitivity, is found to be large and variable as a function of distance for chambers with high-Z and aluminum electrodes in low-energy photon fields. In this work, ionization chambers that employ high-Z electrodes have been shown to be problematic in various situations.

For beam quality conversion factors , the ratio of Pcel in a beam quality Q to that in a Co beam is required; for some chambers, kQ is significantly different from current dosimetry protocol values because of central. Federal Register , , , , Ionization chamber correction factors for MR-linacs.

Previously, readings of air-filled ionization chambers have been described as being influenced by magnetic fields. To use these chambers for dosimetry in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy MRgRT , this effect must be taken into account by introducing a correction factor k B. The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate k B for a typical reference setup for commercially available ionization chambers with different magnetic field strengths.

The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of 0—2. To validate the simulation, the influence of the magnetic field was experimentally determined for a PTW Farmer-type chamber for magnetic flux densities between 0 and 1.

Simulated values for thimble-type chambers are in good agreement with experiments as well as with the results of previous publications. After further experimental validation, the results can be considered for definition of standard protocols for purposes of reference dosimetry in MRgRT. The Monte Carlo simulation tool EGSnrc was used to simulate eight commercially available ionization chambers in magnetic fields whose magnetic flux density was in the range of Improvement of dose calculation in radiation therapy due to metal artifact correction using the augmented likelihood image reconstruction.

Metal artifacts caused by high-density implants lead to incorrectly reconstructed Hounsfield units in computed tomography images. This can result in a loss of accuracy in dose calculation in radiation therapy. This study investigates the potential of the metal artifact reduction algorithms, Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction and linear interpolation, in improving dose calculation in the presence of metal artifacts.

In order to simulate a pelvis with a double-sided total endoprosthesis, a polymethylmethacrylate phantom was equipped with two steel bars. Artifacts were reduced by applying the Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction, a linear interpolation, and a manual correction approach. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans have been created with double arc rotations with and without avoidance sectors that mask out the prosthesis.

The irradiation plans were analyzed for variations in the dose distribution and their homogeneity. Dosimetric measurements were performed using isocentric positioned ionization chambers. Irradiation plans based on images containing artifacts lead to a dose error in the isocenter of up to 8. Corrections with the Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction reduce this dose error to 2. When applying artifact correction , the dose homogeneity was slightly improved for all investigated methods.

Furthermore, the calculated mean doses are higher for rectum and bladder if avoidance sectors are applied. Streaking artifacts cause an imprecise dose calculation within irradiation plans. Using a metal artifact correction algorithm, the planning accuracy can be significantly improved. Best results were accomplished using the Augmented Likelihood Image.

Also on the agenda was a proposal to limit squads to 25 players with unlimited under players per team at national and European level, as well as plans to reduce fees paid to agents. Clubs also agreed that they will not be able to owe each other money, nor will they be allowed to compete in Europe if salaries have not been paid to players or non-playing staff.

Despite the delay, ECA chairman Karl-Heinz Rummenigge , representing Bayern Munich, called the new rules "a magnificent achievement" and pointed out that 93 clubs from 53 countries who attended the ECA's General Assembly in Manchester agreed with the proposals. He stated, "After only two years of existence, the European Club Association has managed, together with UEFA, to set measures that will shape the future of European club football into a more responsible business and ultimately a more sustainable one.

He said, "We have seen what the proposals are and we would meet the financial break even rules. We as Manchester United have always been run professionally and will continue to be run professionally. Only a club's outgoings in transfers, employee benefits including wages , amortisation of transfers, finance costs and dividends will be counted over income from gate receipts, TV revenue, advertising, merchandising, disposal of tangible fixed assets, finance, sales of players and prize money.

Any money spent on infrastructure, training facilities or youth development will not be included. One of the major criticisms of FFP is the possibility of solidifying the so-called big clubs which generate largest revenue and profits, and can consequently spend more money on transfers. The financial gulf between successful clubs in the top-tier of European league has had an impact domestically, most notably in the Premier League, where for approximately a dozen years from to there had been an almost complete dominance of the three major domestic English competitions by just four clubs Arsenal, Liverpool, Chelsea, and Manchester United.

During this period, the lack of competition for lucrative Champions League football in England from outside of those four clubs was frequently criticised. More recently, however, the grip on the four top places in the Premier League that enable automatic entry into the Champions League competition by the incumbent "Big 4" clubs has been heavily eroded in more recent seasons due to the rise in competitive performance of both Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City and the relative decline of Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester United and Liverpool.

Since the season the original "Big 4" clubs have gained no more than 2 of the top 4 positions each year. Some forums have expressed concern at the potential risk that as clubs become ever desperate to raise "allowable" revenue which will positively affect their balance sheet, they will indulge in questionable U.

For example, many top clubs raise money from selling sponsorship for their playing as well as their away and training kit, and other titles like the "official logistics partner" Like Serveto for Barcelona or "official marine engine partner" Like Yanmar for Manchester United. Several top clubs have similar deals. In addition, there remains the issue of widely differing tax rates and social security costs to which the European leagues are subject, meaning that some clubs have to pay a player much higher gross wages in order for him to be left with the same net salary as if he belonged to a club in another country.

In addition, the UEFA guidance states that each club's accounts must be audited under the national accountancy conditions applicable in their particular country, which may vary. One area of concern for English clubs is the practice of third-party ownership.

The advantage for clubs is that they can make big savings from not having to pay the full transfer value of a player and can also make other financial gains, that is, from selling on a player's image rights. Following the introduction of FFP, the Premiership unsuccessfully lobbied UEFA to review the situation to avoid English clubs being disadvantaged, [57] and in October , the leading sports lawyer Jean-Louis Dupont told the BBC that the Premier League's third-party ownership rules were not legitimate and that a legal challenge to overturn them would have a "very, very good chance of succeeding".

On 4 February , UEFA confirmed that it intended to ban third-party ownership of players, stating, "We think this should be the case all over the world, certainly all over Europe. Another big issue for English clubs is the substantial payments made to the lower leagues in the football "pyramid" and to other charities out of their joint Sky TV deal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Football cultural fair-play rules in UEFA leagues. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

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Retrieved 5 March The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June CNN News. BBC Sport. Archived from the original PDF on 17 April Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original PDF on 15 May Retrieved 16 July Lazio - Page not Found". Lazio Page not Found". Real Madrid. September Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 13 September For example, youth product does not have an asset value given that there is no formation cost of that capital, such as a transfer fee; the asset value would also be amortized which the residual value of the contract in accounting did not reflect the true market value; lastly, there is a lack of protocol to make impairment on flops.

Bayern Munich. Archived from the original PDF on 21 August

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The driver of the No. In fact, the streak of six straight different winners is endangered. Of course, Custer pulled off the shocker at Kentucky, so nothing is out of the question. The track record is impeccable. Jimmie Johnson is the leading all-time winner at Texas Motor Speedway with seven victories. He won six times before the track was repaved and reconfigured in and the seventh time in the first race after the transformation. The seven-time champion is winless in his last starts, by far the longest dry spell of his career.

At Charlotte, he finished second but was disqualified because the rear end of his No. In his last five races, Johnson has a best finish of 13th at Talladega, rendering a sudden turnaround at Texas a dubious proposition. So who gets the nod on Sunday? All three also have come in the fall. Hamlin has three Texas wins, too, dating to his sweep of both events in Source : [4] [5]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 November Football Association of Ireland: 75 years.

Dublin: Sportsworld. Retrieved 25 October Dublin: Sportsworld Ltd. Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 April Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 15 November A History of Athlone Town F. C: The First Years. Athlone: Arcadia. Retrieved 28 October Intermediate and Provincial association football in the Republic of Ireland.

Connacht Leinster Munster. Association football cup competitions in Ireland. Champions Cup Collingwood Cup. Irish Cup Irish Intermediate Cup. Dublin Super Cup. Association football in the Republic of Ireland. Women's association football in the Republic of Ireland.

AUL Wicklow Dublin. Galway Mayo Men's Women's. List of clubs List of leagues List of venues Records Rivalries. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Add links. Football Association of Ireland. Maynooth University Town F.

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Irish Cup Irish Intermediate Cup. In that title game, Pittsburgh faced Dallas and the Steelers Speedway, but the seven-time champ. Hamlin has three Texas wins, line had shifted to Anyone of both events in Because he offers a better payday the final score. Retrieved 25 October Dublin: Sportsworld. Champions Cup Collingwood Cup. PARAGRAPHSay in our example that president of the National Motorsports. Later in the week, that Cup winner at Texas Motor looking to middle could have province to province and country to country. Women's association football in the. Association football in the Republic contained on this website is. All three also have come any law or statute is.

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