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KING GEORGE AND QUEEN ELIZABETH STAKES 2021 BETTING

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They also demonstrate the fact that IGT has an impressive portfolio of table games to match the slots library with which we are more traditionally associated. In the battle to acquire new players it is vital that operators arm themselves with the ability to serve the highest quality content on.

The exponential growth that we are witnessing in playing time shows that the appetite is there and it is important to note that it is occurring without any significant cannibalisation. From land-based to desktop, mobile and. Net Entertainment is diligently carrying out research in to the capabilities of the tablet platform and how customers use the relatively new technology. I think the boost has been that you can play almost anywhere now. Slots are much more accessible thanks to the tablet and mobile.

It makes it very interesting. There have been changes in size, resolution and internal specs, allowing us to do things that were impossible a few years back. We look at the sound and music for the games and presentation of different buttons within the games. Any innovations need to make sense from a player perspective and add something to the experience; otherwise they are not worth doing. But Eriksson believes this kind of simultaneous launch will be the standard soon. But if you have a name that people are already familiar with then the game has already removed some barriers to gameplay.

To bring in new players and existing players to the casino, the branded games are very helpful. South Park will attract fans of the show that might never have played an online slot before. Working seamlessly across multiple platforms David Johnson, sales director at Sydney-based slots developer NextGen Gaming, part of the NYX Gaming Group, believes simultaneous launches across all platforms are the way to go. Can one solution cross both mobile and tablet? A tablet is mobile! Tablet players also have the luxury of accessing both mobile and PC game environments depending on their location and hardware specs.

The same high quality user experience is enjoyed whether the player is using an iPad with iOS7 or a Samsung S4 on KitKat Android , while the device and OS detection controls how the game is scaled and oriented within the browser. Focus group feedback suggests this approach is well accepted. Are you noticing a growing interest in tablet games from your customers? The ability to offer our rich slots IP across formats from day one is compelling for our partners and supports their cross channel marketing efforts enabling the mutual maximisation of opportunity from the content.

What are the major advantages of tablets from a games design perspective? Game navigation across devices is fairly uniform, developing features and info pages with common swipes rather than individual buttons allows more intuitive interactivity.

A tablet can be perceived. You could argue that a tablet is less intimidating than PC, and, of course, with a tablet there is a lot more real estate which scales to present the games better. Do you believe tablet gaming will supersede PC-based gaming? I believe that mobile gaming will for the mid-term compliment PC-based gaming. Tablet hardware is advancing rapidly, but the nature of their design does not cater so easily for multitasking, multigaming and multiscreening as well as PC does.

Second screen theories are well published and with merit; certainly the opportunity for players to utilise a tablet whilst being semi-occupied elsewhere is of benefit to those who recreationally like to spin up on a slot. Neill Whyte, head of product channels at Microgaming, discusses how to keep on top of the burgeoning tablet market. The tablet market is soaring at an exponential rate. Gartner forecasts that tablet shipments have increased a staggering Whilst there is an obvious rise in the sale of tablet devices, it is important to note that mobiles and smartphones still dominate overall portable device sales, with more than 1.

So what does this all mean for online gaming? As such, the market is very important for operators and software suppliers; everyone is trying to take a slice of the pie! The explosion of the mobile gaming market in recent years may have taken some by surprise, but we actually developed software for Mobile Casino back in as we knew the potential was huge. Our mobile and tablet product has been designed to meet the requirements of all operating systems namely Android, Windows and iOS systems.

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It embraces modern User Experience design, introducing new concepts of interactivity with the player that combine text, data, game logic, graphic animation and streaming video; while elevating the responsive architecture to its true purpose of designing user-centric games. Visitors to EiG had the opportunity to explore Universal Mobile in the three main verticals; Lottery, Sports Betting and Gaming, while experiencing the cross-platform adap-.

Mobile Lottery is emerging and a novel experience has been created for all lottery games, such as keno double matrix game and scratches, among others. The player enjoys. The latest editions of Intralot Interactive Instant Mobile Games enriched with vivid gaming content that combines proven game mechanics with graphical front ends, appeal to the lottery player, providing additional entertainment value and further increasing the lottery performance.

Mobile Sports Betting constitutes undoubtedly the highest growth area of gaming. Intralot Interactive demonstrated its best-in-class HTML5 Mobile Sports application that supports the pre-match and live betting experience by providing quick access to sophisticated bet slip mechanics, supported by informative and relevant information tools.

Bridging the gap Greek firm Vermantia has launched Mobibet, which has been designed to bridge online, retail, and mobile betting. It provides bookmakers with mobile apps that use dedicated wi-fi points inside the betting shop. The app then delivers live streaming of content, odds and statistics to the LBO customers via their own smartphone or tablet. GBI Racing launched its service in Israel on a test basis in August this year and UK and Irish racing has found immediate and growing appeal in the market since.

Israeli punters will now for the first time be able to bet remotely on live horse racing using a purpose-built, Hebrew website developed for ISBB and the Israeli market by. GBI Racing and development partner, ineda. All horse race betting turnover in Israel, generated both through established retail outlets and the new online service, will be passed back into UK and Irish tote pools.

ISBB issued the tender in June with the aim of gaining government approval to introduce horse racing simulcast as a new, licensed betting product in Israel. The government licence for horse race betting was granted in May ISBB invests per cent of its profits in government-funded community projects that create and maintain sports facilities. ISBB has introduced thoroughbred racing to betting audiences as a completely new, exciting and dynamic sport under a new brand, with many exciting innovations such as purpose-built display systems in shops, touch screen data terminals, a dedicated Hebrew audio service and trained retail agents.

More support for greyhound channel etfred and Totepool have become the latest shareholders of the free-toair Racing Post Greyhound TV channel. The move consolidates Betfred and Totepool as supporters and sponsors of UK greyhound racing which will lead to transmission of the show across 1, Betfred retail premises and online at Betfred.

This is a win-win for viewers and shareholders. GTV Limited continues to grow as a company and a show; this deal signals a renewed long term commitment by all the shareholders to produce the very best weekly showcase for the sport on freeto-air television. Inwhere darts pro Adrian Lewis, currently spired is the sole provider of virtual sports number 3 in the PDC league, promoted the and numbers games via 49s to the UK marnew product and challenged visitors to take ket since and is live in all UK bookmak- him on at live darts.

Cruogy Awardshave revealed a new cate- tion. There is huge scope for this category, both in ways gambling companies can engage with the sports fans through ground-breaking technology but also how the sector has reacted positiveMetalwork supplied from our designs or your own. Traditionally a racing-free day, the BHA has bowed to pressure and added the two meetings to the 1,strong fixture list for , comprising flat and jump fixtures.

In particular, enhancements to the racing calendar such as the exciting addition of Good Friday racing, improvements to our principal days and the boost to racing on Sundays will all serve to further improve British Racing. It keeps LBO customers in the shops, as well as attracting others on their way home from work. We will continue to roll out additional terminals to our entire network on a phased basis.

S po rt sb. One of the main difficulties facing sportsbook providers is the blurring of the lines between traditional website, tablets and smartphone offerings. Essentially online betting can now be seen as having several distinct access methods, each requiring its own specifically tailored user experience. Firstly, we have traditional desktop internet which is well understood by providers and a mature website is generally already in existence.

Secondly, we have tablet internet where the experience should be similar to the desktop site, but navigation is handled differently due to finger tapping, swiping etc. Thirdly, we have smartphone internet access, where we have even less real estate available, and even more gesture driven interfaces are required. Finally, we have native applications downloaded from app stores, where players expect further enhancement beyond a usual smart-. The difficulty for software developers is in somehow giving the player an experience fully tailored to his device, but somehow avoiding the need for developing completely separate systems each with their own expense, and each needing to be kept in line with each other regarding the features underneath the presentation layer.

LVS believe a blended approach is the best method of solving the problem. Therefore once the browser and screen size are identified, an intelligent decision is made as to what behaviour the widget should invoke, or even whether a different version of the widget altogether is required to display the information and control the interaction with the player. By exploiting the latest features of HTML5 within our widgets, we can also give the player a very slick experience.

HTML5 also makes it easier for us to produce a native app whilst still sharing the same web development frame-. This blended approach pays off by ensuring the players get the best experience, but also keeps costs down due to having a single codebase where widgets co-exist together. We also require only one content management system CMS which manages all of the different access methods in one easy to use tool.

The final, and perhaps biggest advantage, is that having one framework forces us to view all the different access methods with one holistic approach. Tradologic was created in by professionals from the financial, online gaming and technology industries to provide a tailored platform with a simple integration.

With [their] unrivalled experience,. A tool for inplay markets, the insurance allows players to pay a premium to guarantee the pay out of their bet, giving punters the opportunity to cash in early or reduce their liabilities if the bet is looking to be unsuccessful.

BTwiice offers bookmakers a revenue share on the use of insurance, allowing them to earn additional revenue. The new fantasy games will be launched next year in Connecticut following the commercial launch of MyWinners.

The ancient setting is populated by druids roaming the hills of Western Europe and features 5reels, 3-rows, Wild substitutions and Free Spins. William Hill is taking on a selection of top desktop and mobile titles from Net Entertainment. Net Entertainment has also launched Magic Portals on its expanding Touch catalogue. The Starburst video slot by Net Entertainment has been complemented by a smaller, playanywhere version called Starburst Mini. It features Starburst Wilds which appear on reels 2, 3 or 4 expanding over the entire reel and remain in place for up to three re-spins, at no extra cost.

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Gamers liked social casinos with the widest selection of classic and new slot games. Players will experience the iconic Monopoly gameplay when moving around the board, plus see captivating iconic game pieces fill the screen and Mr. Monopoly appear in bonus rounds. Microgaming adds three more icrogaming has extended its casino games portfolio with the addition of three new video slots: Dolphin Quest, Rhyming Reels - Georgie Porgie and Paradise Found. Players have very high expectations for Microgaming games, and our new additions will certainly not disappoint.

Both companies are extremely committed to introducing quality entertainment to the British market and we are very excited about this launch. We are looking forward to offering the game to our customers who we know will enjoy it both at our Bingo clubs and online at meccabingo. A second million dollar jackpot game, Jackpot Pinatas, is expected to launch later this month.

POKER Nugget of a deal maya Gaming Grouphas entered into an agreement to provide technology, including a poker platform and casino content, and poker services for goldennuggetpoker. Under the terms of the Agreement, Amaya would receive a share of the revenue generated from the Brands, subject to necessary regulatory requirements. Through this partnership we can supply exceptional and secure online entertainment, supported by the strong brand of our land-based casinos. PLATFORM First Tanzanian operator deal uickfire, powered by Microgaming, is providing its gaming content to the first online casino and games operator approved and regulated by the Tanzanian government.

Dunia, a new online gaming site operating under the brand iplay8, is now live on the Quickfire platform. The GEObet. Irish PM opens Continent 8 centre Major expansion from Continent 8 in both Ireland and at home on the Isle of Man has seen the firm continue to develop its global portfolio. Continent 8 Technologies is focused on the delivery of market-defining internet technologies, products and services to the global online gaming industry; providing companies with secure and reliable facilities from which to host their online operations.

While the official opening only just took place, Continent 8 had been installed, operational and servicing customers in Dublin for over five months prior. This facility allows us to deliver on these requirements and continue to develop our global portfolio of managed services and solutions to the online gaming industry.

The hosting provider, which has been headquartered on the island since , has increased the capacity of the facility as part of its diversification strategy and in order to reach growing demand. Having been successful in delivering data centre services including Co-location, Managed Services, Distributed Denial of Service protection, Disaster Recovery, MPLS services and Content Delivery to online gaming companies across the world for more than 15 years, Continent 8 now.

Using its recently opened data centre in Dublin as a blueprint, a key element of the Isle of Man upgrade is the introduction of fresh air cooling, via a dedicated air handing unit AHU. Advertising sales: Neil Judson, Email: njudson gbmedia.

GAN and GCA are combining their expertise to offer interactive solutions for online gaming and secure payments processing, thereby by providing a single point of integration and affording operators the ability to provide iGaming alternatives to patrons. The agreement sees a DataCash solution implemented across all payment channels including eCommerce and direct credits processed through their successful website and mobile applications.

Sky Betting and Gaming has renewed the partnership because of the long heritage DataCash has in providing payment processing in innovative indus-. PayCorp diversification ayments solutions business Pay Corporation, part of Boxhill Technologies PLC, has signed an agreement with CRM software business Bright Office, further extending its reach outside of the gaming and lottery sectors.

Opinions expressed in this publication should not be regarded as the official view of GB Media Corporation Ltd, except where stated. Views, opinions and recommendations contained in this publication are put forward for consideration only. No action should be taken in reliance upon any such views, opinions or recommendations. Neither GB Media Corporation Ltd nor contributors accept any responsibility for any loss occasioned to any person howsoever caused or arising as a result of or in consequence of action taken or refrained from in realiance on the contents of this publication.

Notes for contributors: BBi welcomes the submission of articles for consideration by the editor with a view to publication. Submission of an article will be held to imply that the article contains original unpublished work which GB Media Corporation Ltd may lawfully publish. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission given, full acknowledgement of author, publisher and source must be given.

IT Spreadex in the cloud preadex will be able to safeguard the online experience for customers by deploying a new private cloud platform based on HP technologies. YX Gaming Grouphas launched into the Italian regulated market together with its first client Microgame, a leading service provider in the Italian remote gaming market. I am thrilled to see our first Italian wager through the OGS system.

To take this step together with one of the leading Providers in the Italian market is truly phenomenal. In only one year NYX OGS has become the games platform of choice for many tier one operators such as Microgame and this launch further increases our reach into regulated markets in which we provide this product.

By adding NYX OGS to our existing portfolio, Microgame further strengthens its leadership position with the most complete online casino product offering in the Italian market. The main thrust of the changes that bookmakers are introducing is to give their customers as much information on their own behaviour as possible and let them make their own decision. Those people need acute clinical help.

What the new code will hopefully do is catch people on the precipice and allow them to check their own behaviour before going ahead. Try it now. Whether these measures will allow punters to be perceived as fully consenting adults remains to be seen, although politicians do enjoy a top down approach when it comes to gambling. Las Vegas casinos have always been notorious for manipulating players to make sure they continue to pump those quarters into gaming machines by using environmental cues such as lighting, smells and sounds.

The infor-. How long would it be before campaigners demand these be implemented into the latest machines in order to curtail the prospect of problem gambling. This approach, as seductive as non-intervention gambling soothing factors may sound, should be avoided at all costs.

It is player manipulation, pure and simple. Worse still it is underhand manipulation and should have no part of a gambling industry which aims for transparency and an adherence to facts. As anyone who witnessed the latest debate on the future of the high street would have noted, facts are not necessarily a pre-requisite for political views however.

The number of MPs convinced that betting shops encourage anti-social behaviour, despite the lack of any evidence, was disappointingly high. The biggest problem that politicians have, of course, with betting shops is that they are so damn visible. Betting exchanges normally present their wares using two main techniques: the display of a price grid by showing, for each selection, the available prices and liquidity; and a regular refresh of the prices and liquidity.

Customer interest in seeing price updates is clearly going to be strongly correlated to the number of bets per hour being placed on the market. Using the simple concept of utility, refresh rates could be. Currently each exchange has its own, mostly simple approach, to refreshing prices on the users screen. As an example, Betfair seem to update the prices by default every 30 seconds, when the user submits a bet, or when the user clicks the refresh button.

Those punters who have a specific requirement for a refresh frequency that more reflects their particular needs are obliged to buy a betting robot which permits a clear user choice of refresh frequency. And maybe they are under-employed updat-. I have come home now and will not be going back. Not bad for a daft bet. Feeling the heat at half the stake John Samuels, case manager at arbitration service IBAS, tackles the oddly misunderstood case of settling dead heat results.

We will no doubt all remember the recent wellpublicised story when a racecourse judge called the wrong result to an evening horse race. A dead-heat was declared when in fact the photo showed that one of the horses was clearly, if marginally, in front of the other. And the subject of dead heats has often been the cause of other arguments in betting circles for other reasons.

Only recently I have even seen some, whom I had considered to be more enlightened and intelligent racing journalists, suggest that bookmakers should indeed settle dead- heat bets at half the odds to the full stake! However, as we should know, Tattersalls Rule 7 clearly confirms that, in a dead heat situation, it is half the stake that is applied to the full odds.

And there is a. One further consideration is that most people will be confused if prices change too rapidly. So an updating policy more frequent than say once a. However, appropriate refreshes of price and liquidity changes may provide a sense of urgency with a consequent increase in betting activity. So what is stopping betting exchanges from saving some demand for computer server resources making unnecessary updates at non-peak times, while improving the service provided to their users at periods of greatest interest?

Similarly, many punters like betting on selections that have significantly reduced in price steamers or have substantially increased in price drifters. However, customers are not always given such information directly on the price grid as they are considering placing a bet. A definition of a steamer or drifter might be, for example,. Betfair - to its credit - provides a graph of the price history made available by clicking a graph symbol against each selection.

However, to find those selections that are a drifter or steamer requires significant proactive effort by the user. Direct indication on the price grid on which selections have steamed or drifted significantly in the recent past may generate additional transactions by punters. A solution to this might be betting exchanges displaying the percentage change over an agreed period at the end of the name of each selection on the price grid perhaps using perhaps a two colour code.

A simple interface like this could well provide an extra call to action to the customer and boost revenues. Who would be a bookmaker given this scenario? At the risk of being seen to backtrack everything above, it is an interesting point that the decimal prices used by remote operators and others these days does make the barrack room lawyers, unknowingly, partly correct.

Allow me to explain. For reasons that maybe a mathematician would probably be able to explain, if one did halve the decimal price for the winner s , and apply the full stake, the result would be the same as applying half the stake to the full odds not decimal price.

If one halves the 1. If one halves the decimal price of 3. Try some others yourself and see. It was an interesting few days on set, albeit some poetic licence was used in order to help the illegal betting shop side of the story add some spice to the drama. Having learned from Inger and many other colleagues, I now feel ready to take on more responsibility within Paf.

Shea was previhorse racing trading supervisor at Sportingbet and held. Bingo sale could leave Coral clear for IPO Gala Coral has been linked with selling off its bingo arm ahead of a flotation. According to the FT, Wykes. Indeed, earnings for Gala Bingo are reported to have dropped by more the a fifth in the quarter to the beginning of July performance which has been attributed to the good weather resulting in less people attending bingo halls.

Due to competition concerns on the transaction, Gala has retained four casinos in the UK Aberdeen, Bristol, Cardiff and Teeside and its multi-gaming complex in Gibraltar. The advantage for the Coral bookmaking business and the Italian Eurobet operation would be a management team focused solely on betting matters and, presumably, with some capital for further investments of its own. Currently head of WTA Media at Perform, Binns brings 17 years of experience from the media and communications sectors to the role.

There is a great broadcast and production team in place at RMG, backed by excellent technical resources. I am very excited about realising their full potential, growing revenues and engaging a wider audience on more platforms than ever before.

Having started his as a casino croupier in , Armstrong has spent the best part of three decades working across a number of roles for leading companies within the gambling industry including, Pleasurama plc, Mecca plc and more recently for Grosvenor Casinos and the Rank Group plc. However, it is equally important to ensure that the industry has full confidence in the charity and its objectives, and I very much hope that my experience of the British gambling industry in particular will be helpful in this regard.

She has over At the same time, the average cost for online advertising at the weekend was found to be lowest, around 12 per cent lower than during the week. Now I am very excited to be back home and part of the BetTech team that is revolutionising the industry. This is despite the rising costs from publishers, who saw their CPMs increased by 30 per cent across the quarter.

The figures also show that consumers spent longer engaging with online advertising during the summer, with engagement rates up by 14 per cent and the average engagement time an impressive 12 seconds. Having seen him on the gallops recently, I can report that Champion Court is in great order and off his mark of , he will be competitive.

Ding Junhui is in great form and has won this title twice, so he will do for me in the York event. His best form has come indoors in and he can surprise in an event where the market leaders may struggle for motivation. November is traditionally a great month for bookmakers and punters to do battle, and this year is no exception, with a wide range of sports to whet the appetite.

In horseracing the jumps season kicks into life with the Hennessy on the 30 November always a popular race in the calendar. I suspect the draw will be the most favoured outcome. Later in the month the Mersey derby and Man City v Spurs will be big betting events.

Both codes of Rugby have a busy international schedule, with the league World Cup climaxing on the 30th at Old Trafford; expect an Aussie v New Zealand final. In Union the Autumn internationals will provide plenty of opportunities for our customers. Finally for insomniacs and cricket fans, the Ashes recommences down under, on 21 November.

Our armchair expert Gavin Hastings will be giving our customers his expert analysis on who will prevail in all these exciting clashes The sport just keeps coming and Novak Djokovic will be gunning to cement his place as World No 1 with a victory at The ATP Finals. England will travel to Australia for the return Ashes series between November and January Sir Ian Botham will be providing our customers with his tips on who will triumph in each test and also providing his thoughts throughout the Ashes on Unibet.

Australia start firm favourites, having won nine of the 13 World Cups. But New Zealand should not be discounted after shocking the Aussies to win the Cup in England have the advantage of being on home soil again and with young talent like Sam Tomkins combining with the older heads of Kevin Sinfield maybe a England can get to The World Cup Final at the end of the month.

Swapping codes; the Autumn Internationals will also start in November. However, there are a number of tasks that my team and I undertake each week to ensure optimum performance. These include: feature planning and updating to the system, prototyping new technology in order to improve customer experience, continuous monitoring of application metrics, debugging and finding causes of any.

I also oversee code commits to ensure code quality, chat to potential clients and perform software demos. Another big part of my role is attending and taking part at trade shows. The conference is exploring the impact of new. Then thoughts will turn to ICE. My Diary: Ian Barnes ike most of us working in the ever-changing world of betting and gaming, the fact that no two days - let alone weeks - are the same is one of the best aspects of the job. At BetTech Gaming that is especially the case.

We are a global business, supplying premium technology solutions to gaming companies, so are always looking ahead of the curve. And being headquartered in Cape Town, South Africa, gives us a different, fresh perspective on the industry. As CTO, I am responsible for the delivery and devel-. For any developers who love scaling challenges and are obsessed by new technologies, get in touch.

Social conversions research launch iGaming consultant Jason Prasad will be presenting his research on social to real-money gambling conversions at the Social Gambling Conference, taking place at Dexter House, London on the November Prasad recently conducted an academic research study on evaluating the effect of perceived marketing communication programs on social gamblers online. Ensuring there is a strong regulatory environment to protect the integrity of these sports is of paramount importance to their authorities, and engaging with international sports bodies, other regulators and gaming operators is a very progressive and important step to being ready for these major sporting events.

This is the only way to achieve results that may contribute to expanding the State Lotteries market, using. Footba drive in t is not unusual to see football at the top of any betting chart these days, so having the Manchester Derby sit at the top of the online betting pile is not a huge surprise given the high profile nature of games between these two teams. In the past couple of seasons the games between City and United have actually decided the fate of the league trophy, but it feels a little different this year, not least because the derby was so early in the season.

But the Premier league this season is more exciting than it has been in recent times, mainly because the retirement of Sir Alex Ferguson has levelled the playing field somewhat. The fact that the top money back offers dominated by marketing masters Paddy Power surround sports other than football —. It is football that is the. Users are engaged courtesy of a constant flow of feed-.

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Led by trade body the Association of British Bookmakers ABB , the code introduces measures that empower the customer by pro- T viding more feedback about their gaming behaviour, specifically on gaming machines. During that thirty second break, responsible gambling messages will appear on screen and staff behind the counter will also be alerted to the fact a player has reached their chosen limit. MOBILE obile gaming operator Probability is revamping its approach to the consumer gaming market after a 9 per cent drop in revenues between Q3 and Q2.

Unusually, Amaya will have to pay some money back should WagerLogic if certain revenue targets are not achieved over the next two years. We are convinced this takes our online casino to a different level to anyone else in the market place and we are delighted with the feedback we have received so far from our customers.

His recent experience in brand building will help 32Red extend its reach in both the UK and internationally, while his strategic thinking and management skills will be vital to ensure a coherent and disciplined approach to an expanded marketing function. The Board is pleased to report that the sports margin percentage has been more than sustained during a period of organisational change within the Group where GVC increased the level of automated trading and reduced the cost of the trading operation.

A His first selection, Letemgo, won the 2. The engagement, which lasted from late to summer , found Ladbrokes had allowed a situation to develop in which the trading function appeared to be subject to a substantially lesser degree of T formal control than other parts of the business.

We therefore urge all operators to satisfy themselves, as a matter of urgency, that their own arrangements for the effective governance of trading room functions do not expose themselves to unnecessary and unacceptable risk to their ability to deliver the licensing objec- tives and comply with the conditions and codes attached to their licences.

The Island was also the first to commit, in December last year, to the FATCA-style agreement with the UK extending the scope of automatic disclosure to include, for example, companies and trusts. Neil Goulden has done an exceptional job during his time in post, having helped to achieve a number of positive outcomes for the industry and thus creates large shoes to fill.

Fixed odds on the eight available markets are displayed before the event and the results are generated by a random number generator RNG 25 Do you notice any difference in behaviour between mobile and tablet customers? T A doubling of customers using tablets at William Hill suggests that the platform is really taking off for the bookmaker.

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In the battle to acquire new players it is vital that operators arm themselves with the ability to serve the highest quality content on every channel. From land-based to desktop, mobile and tablet to social there are no gaps in our offering. H Are you noticing a growing interest in tablet games from your customers? A tablet can be perceived more as a large phone rather than a small computer and allows greater demographic penetration.

Visitors to EiG had the opportunity to explore Universal Mobile in the three main verticals; Lottery, Sports Betting and Gaming, while experiencing the cross-platform adap- tation of gaming features. The player enjoys info bit8. Israeli punters will now for the first time be able to bet remotely on live horse racing using a purpose-built, Hebrew website developed for ISBB and the Israeli market by I GBI Racing and development partner, ineda.

HTML5 also makes it easier for us to produce a native app whilst still sharing the same web development frame- work. With [their] unrivalled experience, global network and reputation for success, we had no hesitation in turning to KMi Gaming to help us fully explore this. Hills deal William Hill is taking on a selection of top desktop and mobile titles from Net Entertainment.

After any T spin, Transformers characters may appear and explode away further symbols, unleashing even more wild and bonus-triggering symbols. Both companies are extremely committed to introducing quality entertainment to the British market and we are very excited about this launch 29 B2B publications iG am in g M making sense of the gaming industry and the positive development of our cooperation. Having been successful in delivering data centre services including Co-location, Managed Services, Distributed Denial of Service protection, Disaster Recovery, MPLS services and Content Delivery to online gaming companies across the world for more than 15 years, Continent 8 now plans to use its proven expertise to reach out to new sectors.

So an updating policy more frequent than say once a second might distract rather than assist the user. I'm also much more willing to fire multiple bullets, instead of making the token continuation bet and then shutting down on the turn.

It's not uncommon to find otherwise "bad" players that do reasonably well at NL, simply due to amped up aggression and their willingness to push on you when you show weakness. It takes a conscious effort from me at times to not lapse into turtle mode versus those opponents waiting for a big hand to break them with but I think in the long run its much better to push back and fight fire with fire, as your odds of breaking them are actually much greater if you force them to back off a bit and give you breathing room, where you can play a wider range of hands.

I'm still not consistently able to fire a third bullet on the river, though, when I'm completely playing with air. And I'm simultaneously developing the bad habit of counting on that when the roles are reversed, and I have a decent hand in position against a hyper aggressive player something like middle pair, good kicker and maybe with a gutshot thrown in and believe my opponent didn't connect with the flop.

So I call what I assume is a continuation bet on the flop, and then call the turn stab, knowing that more likely than not they'll shut down on the river and I'll get to showdown, since most players at the baby NL tables aren't able to fire the third bullet on the river. Don't worry, I'm not talking about always meekly calling down with middle pair, and am only addressing fairly isolated spots against aggressive opponents who you think are full of it, for whatever reason. And that's a fairly successful line, due to the universal difficulty of firing a third bullet on the river.

But it's likely a habit I need to break, as that'll get my lunch eaten up at bigger limits with better players who are more than capable of firing lots and lots of bullets, from anywhere, on any street. Day job malaise is growing much, much stronger. Which is pretty horrible timing, due to the whole house buying thing. A co-worker just got offered a 7 week severance pay package, due to the fact that he had the gall to send a private email to his boss that was, gasp, not filled with glowing things to say about our operating efficiencies.

That's a whole other kettle of platypus, though, but the point is that HyperMegaGlobalCorp appears to want to get rid of digruntled monkeys here if they can, and are willing to offer a severance package of 1 week per year of service, plus paying you out in full for accrued vacation time. So I'd basically just have to turn up the disgruntled dial, fire off some emails, and could possibly get a 6 week severance pay package. Which, umm, would be pretty sweet.

I just wish I could count more consistently on freelance work or, you know, actually get PAID for a fairly substantial amount of work, that's over 90 days overdue now payment-wise , but that's the nature of that game. Much of that's my own damn fault, though, as I've really done nothing to hustle up freelance work, and to the hustlers go the spoils. Boo, me. Posted by ScurvyDog at AM 1 comment:. It helps that I've been on a hell of an upswing of late, but I'm still enjoying playing NL, much more than I'd have imagined.

I definitely don't regret all the LHE grinding, and would probably even recommend that people cut their teeth on LHE first before seriously stepping into NL games, but it's hard at the moment seeing myself ever going back to LHE full time. Assuming that the solitary goal in all this pokering is to exploit weakness and make money, NL definitely appears to be the way to go, and the direction that poker everywhere is skewing, as far as available games.

No real noteworthy hands from last, as most of the dinero came from big hands that fell into my lap flopping the nut flush versus the second nut flush, flopped full house with a junky hand from the BB versus an AA pre-flop limper, etc. I'm also UTG and have already clicked off the auto-post button, ready to book a nice little quick hit and run and go paint some walls.

The button and BB both call. No real reads on either but they've seemed fairly solid and not crazy, a little tight if anything as neither has been involved in many pots. Three of us see the flop, which is 8h 9h 10s, which I obviously, umm, like a lot.

I could very easily be up against a flush draw and a set and actually not be that big a favorite or even a favorite at all, depending on BB's hand , or chopping at least some of the pot with QJ. Rolling around in the back of my mind, too, is the fact that I was ready to call it a night and be done, and suddenly I'm entangled in a hand with the only other stack at the table that could do me serious harm.

My first impulse was actually to shove, to punish the button if he's on the flush draw and wants to keep drawing. There's also a distinct possibility that he's got a weaker hand that I'm way ahead of something like QQ, JJ, maybe AA or KK if he's prone to slowplaying pre-flop that I don't want to drive out by shoving all-in. So I hemmed and hawed and talked myself out of shoving. I don't like this line in retrospect as it sets me up for a really difficult turn decision if a heart comes, as he has position on me.

Re-raising a hefty amount is probably best, as it makes playing the turn much easier, since I'm committed at that point even if a heart comes. So I just call, and then button proceeds to shove all-in. I reach for the junk protector and sit there for a second, shaking my head at the absurdity of the situation, in what was my "last hand" and could have easily been folded pre-flop with nary a penny risked.

But even my tightbox self can't fold the nuts so I call, holding my breath. Turn is 4s and the river is the Jc, putting 8h 9h 10c 4s Jc on the board. BB had AhJh and button had 10d 10c, which was pretty much as bad as it could have been for me and my flopped "nuts". Button got all of his money in as the favorite and I made the "donkey" call with the nuts.

Posted by ScurvyDog at AM 4 comments:. I suppose I was overdue for a beatdown in the Titan NL games, which was thoroughly delivered yesterday. The odd thing wasn't so much the beatdown, but that I was catching all sorts of huge hands flopped quads twice, and rivered quads another time, in addition to a healthy number of pocket pairs transmorgifying into flopped sets yet couldn't, for the life of me, get paid off.

Rinse and repeat that scenario more than a few times, run KK into AA a few times, add in a little shot to the kidneys from the tilt monster, and bam, you've got yourself a hefty little losing session. Top two pair is killing me of late in big pots. I suppose that's the next donkey lesson I need to learn in NL, after absorbing mostly the ability to not go broke with TPTK, which is to be able to get away from top two pair in certain spots. If you didn't get the i4Poker casino bonus in I mentioned on Saturday, no soup for you, as they apparently yanked that puppy off their site within a few days of releasing it.

Ever now and then I get a wee twinge of guilt from taking advantage of offers like that, as I can only imagine the operators of the site suddenly seeing a huge influx of people signing up, whoring the bonus in the casino, and then immediately requesting a cashout, and suddenly what seemed like a good idea "Hey, let's give away free money to get people to sign up at our wonderful site!

Then I remember that, umm, we're talking about an industry that lagrely profits froms and markets to the weak, dumb, and addicted, and I don't feel quite so bad. If you did miss the i4Poker casino bonus and are looking to get a few more B2B bucks in your pocket, BestPoker also has a casino bonus currently running. Click on that image and you'll get the actual terms. It works exactly like the i4Poker one did, as far as depositing into your main account in the cashier, transfering to the casino, at which point you get the bonus automatically added to your accont.

WR is 25x bonus which is pretty decent. Still staying pretty busy with house stuff, as we're moving the big stuff on Saturday, and I'm scrambling around, trying to get painting done at both places before then. Stellar timing on our part, as far as moving in Texas in the August heat, but what are you going to do. Other than, you know, not buy a house and move in the August heat in Texas. Posted by ScurvyDog at AM 3 comments:.

I should have been more aggressive, though, despite an utter crapitude of cards, as the table was uber tight and I likely could have thieved a lot more chips. The 6 max event was odd, as we still had our original starting six players at the first break, with no one busting in the first hour.

Again, completely card dead but I had a couple of nice re-steals in decent pots and connected with some crap cards out of the blinds, so I managed to maintain a healthy stack, at least for our table, as things were getting wonky since we were busting so few players, so the chip lead at the table had like 6K at one point, when the tournament average was 12K. Largish stack got moved to our table and immediately doubled me up just before the third break.

Joy was short-lived, though, as I lost back-to-back all-in hands versus smaller stacks vs. Large stack in the SB gave me a free look in my BB with Q9o, flop was Qs9s8h, all the money goes in and SB flips over 2s5s, river is a spade for his flush and dat's all she wrote. I guess going deep is better than not going deep but meh. For all of you bonus junkies, i4 Poker just released an uber juicy bonus for their casino.

It's cashable and BJ is allowed, which is about as juicy as it gets. As far as I know, you have to track the WR manually, as there's no other way to check it in the software. My little Degenerate Challenge continues to chug along nicely, although it's morphing a wee bit, at least on the poker side. I've settled in pretty nicely at the NL tables at Titan , and have pretty much given up the grinding of poker bonuses for the moment.

As far as addressing a few emails and coments about that stuff, yeah, I've been running abnormally well with those, especially with a few of the stickies. But I've also donked off a silly amount of money from pushing too hard on a few when I'm up and getting impatient in general, so that somewhat mitigates the luckbox factor in my own results.

But no, on average, you shouldn't expect to run quite as well as I have on the casino side. There's still a ton of money to be made, though, if you're willing to grind it out, especially at the beginning when you're building your roll. That's the critical juncture, as too many people get impatient, tilt a bit, lump it all on one hand of blackjack and bust out. With football season kicking up I'm probably going to be hitting the sportsbook bonuses pretty hard.

Those are much less sexy and monotonous and grindy, but they're also essentially risk-free. I know you're all sick of hearing it, but I've run out of words for how bad the play is sometimes at Titan NL games. He's firing off big bets with any and everything, and firing bullets all the way to the river and proudly showing his complete bluffs whenever they win.

I'm on the button and find AcAd. Folds to me and I just smooth call. Both the blinds fold and we see a flop of 10h 6d 4c. Turn is 6s, putting 10h 6d 4c 6s on the board. But there's no way in hell I'm folding AA in this spot versus Norwegian Maniac, so it's either call or shove. I can't imagine he's drawing to anything, so I just decide to call, hoping to induce another bet on the river, as all of my chips are going in regardless of what the river is. River is the lovely As.

He doesn't have quad sixes and I rake in a juicy pot. Posted by ScurvyDog at AM 6 comments:. Friday, August 18, Approximately the Temperature of the Sun. Finished the last coat of sealer on the hardwood floors and, if I do say so myself, it looks pretty damn good. It sounds kind of backwards, but I'm actually digging the fact that the new house entails some pretty hefty renovation projects. I can be a lazy monkey in many ways but I enjoy work like that especially emerging from the other side when it's all done , and our current house was pretty project-free and good to go, except for a lot of the landscaping work I did.

Yay, tools In other news, it's been like degrees here the last few days. What the bajebus is that all about? Just ye olde weather gods trying to point out the idiocy of Central Texans trying to keep St. Augustine grass healthy alive in our yards? That's especially nice of you, te olde weather gods, considering that it also hasn't rained in like , days, either.

Posted by ScurvyDog at PM 1 comment:. Horsie Horse. I could have easily folded to the money but got caught bluffing at a few pots with big door cards trying to steal blinds in position, etc. Felt like I played pretty solidly, and, oddly enough, picked up most of my chips at the Stud games throughout the night. Thursday, August 17, Whee, Vacation. Words can't express how nice it is to not have to go to HyperMegaGlobalCorp for a few days, even if it's not vacation proper and I'm just tooling around home, doing assorted crap.

Not so much the last few days, although I have been busy with house stuff. Poker was sort of up and down yesterday. I made it past the second break in the PLHE event but was never really a factor, pretty much completely card dead from just before the first break.

I think I had one pocket pair the entire tournament and never really could get anything going. Finally busted out when A8s ran into AK although I did flop an 8, only for the dread K to magically appear on the river. So, you know, ignore the silly babbling man. Wednesday, August 16, Sttttreeeeetttttccccchhhhhhhh Ahh, sweet blissful laziness.

And how sad it is that I consider sleeping in until 8 and lazily putzing around on the computator and drinking coffee for an hour to be sweet, blissful laziness these days. The original plan was to move all of the big stuff this Saturday the 19th , so I requested the next three days off, in order to rush around, helter-skelter-like, trying to get everything done.

But we're renting our current house to my brother-in-law and he doesn't have to move out of his current house until the end of the month, so we threw in the towel yesterday and said screw it, let's just move next Saturday the 26th. Which not only buys me much time, but leaves me off the next three days. Still much, much work to do, but I don't have to rush around like a headless monkey to get it all done, and can even, gasp, play some of this poker game that all the kids are talking about.

Kind of hard to put Gus on as strong of a hand as he had, so that one goes into the "what can you do, that's poker" bin, but the Doyle hand had me scratching my head. I realize that the gods of poker shall descend upon me and smite me mightily for saying this, but I thought Doyle butchered that one pretty badly by playing it so fast, especially when he filled up on the turn.

He lumps a ton of money out there, Daniel folds, and Doyle comments that he was hoping that Daniel had turned trip 6s, etc. Umm, okay, but why in the world wouldn't you just slowplay there and check to him? If he did in fact have trip 6s he'd lump a lot of money in there when checked to, and more than likely take a shot at it even if he didn't when you showed weakness and checked the turn which I assume was his plan when he called on the flop with just bottom pair, crappy kicker, as far as taking a stab at it on the turn if Doyle showed weakness.

I can't see that you gain anything by betting out big on the turn, as a ton of money is going in regardless if he has trip 6s, but he folds pretty much anything else to a big bet there. But then again, Doyle has forgotten more than I'll ever know about poker, so I should shut my dang ol' mouth.

It's also interesting reading about the assorted fallout from the suit by Raymer et al regarding the WPT stuff. I can definitely understand the upsetedness expressed from the poker players' side of the issue, and I definitely agree that the rights given up to play in a televised WPT event are pretty substantial. But in the end I can't help but think: "Yes, indeed, but so what?

Everyone likes eating cake, as well as possessing cake, but things don't always work that way. They get away with what they can get away with, trying to make as much money as possible. Yeah, they're pretty much the main game in town, if you want to play in big buy-in, televised poker events, but they're not the only game in town.

But let's pretend that the were indeed the only game in town, and that to play in a big buy-in, televised pooker tournament you absolutely had to play in a WPT event, and you absolutely had to sign away all sorts of rights to your likeness and image to do so.

That's the universe we're existing in. Do you really think that you are endowed with some natural, inalienable right, to play in big buy-in televised poker tournaments without signing away those rights? Why should you be? I haven't checked lately, but I doubt that the Constitution or Bill of Rights addresses your rights in regards to televised poker tournaments, but I'm going to go out on a limb and say no, that it's not a basic right that you should expect.

Does it suck, from the perspective of the player? Sure, but that's the price of admission, just that it sucks that you employer can monitor your telephone calls at work, or your e-mails. No one is forcing you to buy into a WPT event. If you feel that you can profit more from completely control the usage of your likeness and image, don't play in a WPT event. So if someone ever asks you if you think you can knock out refinishing sq. Or, you know, yes.

But just barely. And have a titanium-reinforced back that won't leave you bent over and hobbling like an arthritic octogenarian shuffling their way towards the nearest Luby's when you're done. And I'm not even really done, as I have one more screening pass with a buffer to go, then the first coat of sealer. Mock grousing aside, I actually enjoyed most of the work itself, except for using the edger, which was the bane of my weekend existence.

They look about 10, times better than before, which is good enough for us. Before and after pics coming soon, when everythng is sealed and finished and nicey-nice looking. I did squeeze in a tiny, tiny amount of poker last night, but only fifteen minutes or so. Friday, August 11, Kudos, Mr.

Based on assorted accounts he sounds like a bit of a tool, largely luckboxing his way to the win and didn't appear to be hurting for cash prior to winning , but I suppose it could have been worse. It'll be interesting to see if Stars tries to woe him into their fold of former ME winners and just pretend, you know, that he wasn't linked with Bodog when he actually won the ME.

This weekend is pretty much D-Day err, D-Weekend for refinishing the hardwood floors at the new house. Jury is still out on whether it'll kill me or not, but I should be able to get the bulk of it done. Thank Jebus that the start of football season is approaching rapidly. I finished up my monkey labors a bit early last night and got home in time to hit up the Titan ATM.

Couple of river all-in bluffs from lemurs when I'm sitting on the mortal nuts and I log off, merrily shaking my head. Thursday, August 10, Get Thee to Titan. I'll concede that there could be some value in it from a mixing-up-your-play perspective, if you regularly play with the same opponents or are channeling Miss Cleo and somehow know the table you're on won't break for an hour or two. But I need more convincing that it's a useful tool if you're in a loose, aggressive game.

Yes, you pick up some EV from enticing players with marginal hands to take a shot, as they'd have simply folded if you'd make a standard raise. But you're also sacrificing some EV by essentially turning your aces or kings face-up on the table, as the limp re-raise makes their flop decision much easier assuming they even call the re-raise, which is far from a given. If they're trying to steal with a marginal hand or playing AK fast, you could make a good argument that the absolute last thing you'd want to do is limp-reraise, choosing instead to simply smooth call and encourage them to keep firing on the flop.

I just bought in and am posting my BB for the first time and am dealt KQo. Flop is Kh 8s 7s. MP calls, CO calls, and button calls. I call. Turn is 8h, puttng Kh 8s 7s 8h on the board. CO calls. Button calls. I should still likely fold, as I'm not closing the action and UTG could have donked out with a big hand and be waiting to re-raise, but damn, them's good odds and a nice pot that no one is showing much interest in. River is 10s. And what powerhouse hands did everyone have, that couldn't overcome my mighty KQo on that board?

Wednesday, August 09, Nothing to See Here. I gots nothing. Falling into the routine of work, work, and more work, getting up at the crack of dawn and getting home at 8 or 9 at night, eating dinner, passing out, rinse, lather, and repeat. It's actually sort of nice as far as a temporary, short-term way o' life, as it's easy to essentially zone out and keep my head down and not worry about much of anything. I mean, that's tournament poker, and I'm really not knocking it, it's just increasingly boring for me to watch.

High Stakes Poker , though, is a completely different beast, for all the obvious reasons. Aside from the instructional value of seeing how assorted pros play all sorts of hands, it's interesting just to watch the way they interact with the game and players, and how hyper-aware the best players are. You can slice and dice and analyze all you want, as far as what makes the winners in that game winners, but in the end I have to think the biggest factor is experience and simply paying very fucking close attention to everything that goes on.

The latest episode was a pretty nice example of that, especially how easily everyone was reading that jackass Zeidman, and how completely oblivous jackass was, at two different points, yammering on and on with yet another soliloquy. And, to a lesser extent, how assorted players have zeroed in on Amnon Filippi, especially Negreanu, who keeps playing nice cop to ensure that Filippi stays happily seated at the table. I forget who called him out, but the point was made in about 0.

Edit: Err, strike the above. As pointed out in a comment, I was thinking of the hand where Eli hit his Broadway straight versus Daniel, not the hand where Doyle slowplayed KK against him. Pretty much have been poker-free for the last few days, so nothing to report on that front.

I may try to sneak in a few of the big tournaments Full Tilt is running August August 20, but it'll likely be a few weeks before I have any sort of time to get back into the regular poker grind. I tried to allow it some leeway at first, as far as a play that has some legs to it although really not optimal for baby NL tables where players simply aren't very good and can't lay down hands when they "should" , but more and more I can't see any time, at any table, where it's correct to limp re-raise with KK or AA.

No real reads or data on any opponents, seems like a fairly generic table. I'm in the BB with QQ. Folds to CO, who limps in. Button folds and I call. Any A, K, or J on the flop, I check-fold. Unless I flop a set, I'm basically done with the hand.

Flop is Qc 8h 3d. He doesn't hit his two-outer with KK and I double up. That's an obviously biased example on several levels, but fairly illustrative of my point. One obvious argument for the limp re-raise is that it encourages hands like AKo, , JJ, or QQ to push back over the top pre-flop, if the player is overly aggressive and not very good.

Very true, but that same overly agreesive, not very good player is going to likely do that anyway on the flop, so you're really not gaining much from the limp re-raise itself. I suppose you could argue that there's some value in limp re-raising with KK or AA if it's a full table with many limpers, as far as clearing out the clutter that might crack your big pair, but I'm still having a hard time believing that you extract full value from those hands in the situation, as you're essentially turning your hand over face-up and encouraging all sorts of hands to call pre-flop and then check-fold the flop if they can't beat KK or AA.

It's obviously dangerous to make broad, sweeping generalizations when it comes to poker, but I'm just not seeing the value in limp re-raising with KK or AA, no matter what angle you look at it from.

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Without this team it is hard to appreciate such aspects as, for example, screen real estate, intuitive user interfaces, minimising views and buttons while emphasising and maximising content in a non-intrusive manner. While these issues are common to mobile and tablets platforms, the solutions they receive in each of them cannot be the same. In fact, quite often they can be so different as to warrant development and maintenance of different versions of the same application.

You have some more products in the pipeline what are you working on at the moment? While continually enhancing our sports book app, we actively work to bring our poker, casino and skill games to the tablet. Live Dealer on the move Tablets are particularly effective platforms for Live Dealer products and EntwineTech has just developed a mobile solution for its portfolio.

EntwineTech a pioneer of PC-based Live Dealer solutions has drawn upon its years of innovation and design expertise to produce an elegant user friendly mobile interface that will wow customers around the world. While the new value added mobile version of the Live Dealer software is a free upgrade for all our merchants and in turn, free for players. Entwine Tech believes it will be particularly attractive to VIP customers who will benefit from the availability of their favourite games any time anywhere.

This is the future of gaming and we are proud to be at the forefront of it. In the land of mobile gaming the smartphone is king. Thanks to the sheer volume of devices and vast improvements to cellular networks, revenues have gone through the roof. In the rush to grab a piece of the pie, however, it may be a mistake to think this will always be the case - or that a phone solution is a tablet solution too.

For the time being, tablet lags behind the phone in the number of bets, turnover, and gross win. Yet by our calculations, the yield from tablet players is significantly higher than those using phones. This is most probably down to a number of factors that are worth bearing in mind. Being more powerful they are also capable of offering more functionality and features that result in longer session times. So too does playing in the comfort of your home as most tablet users do - where there is a more stable Wi-Fi connection, as opposed to using your smartphone on the hoof and on 3G.

Yet with more and more people replacing their PCs with tablets, and their price coming down as the market is flooded with cheaper Android versions, the balance in the volume over value argument may well shift. The bottom line is that tablet gaming is extremely important already - and will only become more so and should therefore be an area of focus for operators as part of their overall mobile gaming strategy.

And the key is to take advantage of the reasons why people play on their tablets by designing and delivering games specifically for them. Not only that, it is important that these tailored tablet solutions are effectively delivered via a sensible user agent detection strategy, thus helping to optimise that all-important customer experience.

While this approach is undoubtedly more complicated and resource-intensive for the supplier, it is the only way both they and operators will reap the rewards of tablet gaming. Merely up-scaling smartphone games will no longer cut the mustard with a player whose device offers more sophistication. The growth of tablets is scarcely believable. Several of our customers are already reporting that gaming on tablets has become more popular than smartphones. Until recently, smartphones were the favoured on-the-go device, while tablets were for the home, with over 90 per cent of tablets sold being Wi-Fi only and around 10 inches in size.

However, the Kindle Fire, Nexus 7, and iPad mini have brought portability. Now tablets are everywhere we turn. As such, major retail stores and restaurants, large shopping malls, and other places that attract high footfall, like transport providers, are seriously stepping up their Wi-Fi.

Realistic Games commercial director Andy Harris discusses the potential for the tablet to start usurping the smartphone. This is true gaming and the edge that puts GTech ahead of its competitors. The best way to design is with all devices in mind. Then we refine, add, remove, and iterate to ensure the core features are present, but that each channel is unique and appeals to players in their own right.

A multi-platform, single experience is our ultimate goal as we set our sights on the future of gaming for retail, interactive — and beyond. We are working hard to achieve this. Last year was about setting up the underlying infrastructure to support mobile and tablet gaming.

In we have concentrated on broadening the product range with us delivering across verticals in sports, bingo, casino, poker, and lottery. Next year it will be about depth and continuing to improve and align the look, feel, and delivery of all our games to take maximum advantage of responsive design techniques and fall closer in line with desktop features - preparing for the inevitable PC-tablet flip. Using intelligence to cut costs The back office provided by Bit8 is just as effective for tablets as it is for mobile and desktop operations.

This really makes the applications much more responsive. The AI allows the creation of more bonus offers and better promo-. We have support for geographical based bonuses in addition to other open source type of bonuses. If a player is in a particular city or near a sports stadium, we can have the system offer a particular bonus relevant to their location. We have found that tablets are particularly good at sportsbook, but we can also offer things like mini-games during breaks in play or slow periods.

Harnessing the power Leigh Nissim, IGT commercial director of Interactive, discusses why creating tablet-specific games content is crucial and how IGT is leading the way with the release of its first bespoke games for the incredibly popular devices.

Consumer habits are changing. The latest estimates from technology researcher IDC expect tablet sales, at As demands have moved, so has the parlance. At IGT we have a clear plan to let tablet players play tablet games by designing and devel-. The first step in this strategy is our launch of Roulette!

While these games mirror their online siblings, they are very much built to bring the best out of tablets; they have a tailored interface taking advantage of the increased screen size, richer graphics, advanced animation as well as super quick download. They also demonstrate the fact that IGT has an impressive portfolio of table games to match the slots library with which we are more traditionally associated.

In the battle to acquire new players it is vital that operators arm themselves with the ability to serve the highest quality content on. The exponential growth that we are witnessing in playing time shows that the appetite is there and it is important to note that it is occurring without any significant cannibalisation. From land-based to desktop, mobile and. Net Entertainment is diligently carrying out research in to the capabilities of the tablet platform and how customers use the relatively new technology.

I think the boost has been that you can play almost anywhere now. Slots are much more accessible thanks to the tablet and mobile. It makes it very interesting. There have been changes in size, resolution and internal specs, allowing us to do things that were impossible a few years back. We look at the sound and music for the games and presentation of different buttons within the games. Any innovations need to make sense from a player perspective and add something to the experience; otherwise they are not worth doing.

But Eriksson believes this kind of simultaneous launch will be the standard soon. But if you have a name that people are already familiar with then the game has already removed some barriers to gameplay. To bring in new players and existing players to the casino, the branded games are very helpful. South Park will attract fans of the show that might never have played an online slot before. Working seamlessly across multiple platforms David Johnson, sales director at Sydney-based slots developer NextGen Gaming, part of the NYX Gaming Group, believes simultaneous launches across all platforms are the way to go.

Can one solution cross both mobile and tablet? A tablet is mobile! Tablet players also have the luxury of accessing both mobile and PC game environments depending on their location and hardware specs. The same high quality user experience is enjoyed whether the player is using an iPad with iOS7 or a Samsung S4 on KitKat Android , while the device and OS detection controls how the game is scaled and oriented within the browser.

Focus group feedback suggests this approach is well accepted. Are you noticing a growing interest in tablet games from your customers? The ability to offer our rich slots IP across formats from day one is compelling for our partners and supports their cross channel marketing efforts enabling the mutual maximisation of opportunity from the content. What are the major advantages of tablets from a games design perspective? Game navigation across devices is fairly uniform, developing features and info pages with common swipes rather than individual buttons allows more intuitive interactivity.

A tablet can be perceived. You could argue that a tablet is less intimidating than PC, and, of course, with a tablet there is a lot more real estate which scales to present the games better. Do you believe tablet gaming will supersede PC-based gaming?

I believe that mobile gaming will for the mid-term compliment PC-based gaming. Tablet hardware is advancing rapidly, but the nature of their design does not cater so easily for multitasking, multigaming and multiscreening as well as PC does.

Second screen theories are well published and with merit; certainly the opportunity for players to utilise a tablet whilst being semi-occupied elsewhere is of benefit to those who recreationally like to spin up on a slot. Neill Whyte, head of product channels at Microgaming, discusses how to keep on top of the burgeoning tablet market.

The tablet market is soaring at an exponential rate. Gartner forecasts that tablet shipments have increased a staggering Whilst there is an obvious rise in the sale of tablet devices, it is important to note that mobiles and smartphones still dominate overall portable device sales, with more than 1. So what does this all mean for online gaming?

As such, the market is very important for operators and software suppliers; everyone is trying to take a slice of the pie! The explosion of the mobile gaming market in recent years may have taken some by surprise, but we actually developed software for Mobile Casino back in as we knew the potential was huge.

Our mobile and tablet product has been designed to meet the requirements of all operating systems namely Android, Windows and iOS systems. Take iOS 7 as an example, our games were compatible with the operating system on the day of its launch. In addition to the ever-popular Casino games, we also offer Mobile Poker and Mobile Bingo, both of which provide seamlessly integrated content on any mobile or tablet device.

Our Mobile content is also available through Quickfire, for operators requiring content integration only. It embraces modern User Experience design, introducing new concepts of interactivity with the player that combine text, data, game logic, graphic animation and streaming video; while elevating the responsive architecture to its true purpose of designing user-centric games.

Visitors to EiG had the opportunity to explore Universal Mobile in the three main verticals; Lottery, Sports Betting and Gaming, while experiencing the cross-platform adap-. Mobile Lottery is emerging and a novel experience has been created for all lottery games, such as keno double matrix game and scratches, among others.

The player enjoys. The latest editions of Intralot Interactive Instant Mobile Games enriched with vivid gaming content that combines proven game mechanics with graphical front ends, appeal to the lottery player, providing additional entertainment value and further increasing the lottery performance. Mobile Sports Betting constitutes undoubtedly the highest growth area of gaming. Intralot Interactive demonstrated its best-in-class HTML5 Mobile Sports application that supports the pre-match and live betting experience by providing quick access to sophisticated bet slip mechanics, supported by informative and relevant information tools.

Bridging the gap Greek firm Vermantia has launched Mobibet, which has been designed to bridge online, retail, and mobile betting. It provides bookmakers with mobile apps that use dedicated wi-fi points inside the betting shop. The app then delivers live streaming of content, odds and statistics to the LBO customers via their own smartphone or tablet.

GBI Racing launched its service in Israel on a test basis in August this year and UK and Irish racing has found immediate and growing appeal in the market since. Israeli punters will now for the first time be able to bet remotely on live horse racing using a purpose-built, Hebrew website developed for ISBB and the Israeli market by.

GBI Racing and development partner, ineda. All horse race betting turnover in Israel, generated both through established retail outlets and the new online service, will be passed back into UK and Irish tote pools. ISBB issued the tender in June with the aim of gaining government approval to introduce horse racing simulcast as a new, licensed betting product in Israel. The government licence for horse race betting was granted in May ISBB invests per cent of its profits in government-funded community projects that create and maintain sports facilities.

ISBB has introduced thoroughbred racing to betting audiences as a completely new, exciting and dynamic sport under a new brand, with many exciting innovations such as purpose-built display systems in shops, touch screen data terminals, a dedicated Hebrew audio service and trained retail agents.

More support for greyhound channel etfred and Totepool have become the latest shareholders of the free-toair Racing Post Greyhound TV channel. The move consolidates Betfred and Totepool as supporters and sponsors of UK greyhound racing which will lead to transmission of the show across 1, Betfred retail premises and online at Betfred.

This is a win-win for viewers and shareholders. GTV Limited continues to grow as a company and a show; this deal signals a renewed long term commitment by all the shareholders to produce the very best weekly showcase for the sport on freeto-air television. Inwhere darts pro Adrian Lewis, currently spired is the sole provider of virtual sports number 3 in the PDC league, promoted the and numbers games via 49s to the UK marnew product and challenged visitors to take ket since and is live in all UK bookmak- him on at live darts.

Cruogy Awardshave revealed a new cate- tion. There is huge scope for this category, both in ways gambling companies can engage with the sports fans through ground-breaking technology but also how the sector has reacted positiveMetalwork supplied from our designs or your own. Traditionally a racing-free day, the BHA has bowed to pressure and added the two meetings to the 1,strong fixture list for , comprising flat and jump fixtures.

In particular, enhancements to the racing calendar such as the exciting addition of Good Friday racing, improvements to our principal days and the boost to racing on Sundays will all serve to further improve British Racing. It keeps LBO customers in the shops, as well as attracting others on their way home from work. We will continue to roll out additional terminals to our entire network on a phased basis.

S po rt sb. One of the main difficulties facing sportsbook providers is the blurring of the lines between traditional website, tablets and smartphone offerings. Essentially online betting can now be seen as having several distinct access methods, each requiring its own specifically tailored user experience.

Firstly, we have traditional desktop internet which is well understood by providers and a mature website is generally already in existence. Secondly, we have tablet internet where the experience should be similar to the desktop site, but navigation is handled differently due to finger tapping, swiping etc.

Thirdly, we have smartphone internet access, where we have even less real estate available, and even more gesture driven interfaces are required. Finally, we have native applications downloaded from app stores, where players expect further enhancement beyond a usual smart-. The difficulty for software developers is in somehow giving the player an experience fully tailored to his device, but somehow avoiding the need for developing completely separate systems each with their own expense, and each needing to be kept in line with each other regarding the features underneath the presentation layer.

LVS believe a blended approach is the best method of solving the problem. Therefore once the browser and screen size are identified, an intelligent decision is made as to what behaviour the widget should invoke, or even whether a different version of the widget altogether is required to display the information and control the interaction with the player.

By exploiting the latest features of HTML5 within our widgets, we can also give the player a very slick experience. HTML5 also makes it easier for us to produce a native app whilst still sharing the same web development frame-. This blended approach pays off by ensuring the players get the best experience, but also keeps costs down due to having a single codebase where widgets co-exist together.

We also require only one content management system CMS which manages all of the different access methods in one easy to use tool. The final, and perhaps biggest advantage, is that having one framework forces us to view all the different access methods with one holistic approach. Tradologic was created in by professionals from the financial, online gaming and technology industries to provide a tailored platform with a simple integration.

With [their] unrivalled experience,. A tool for inplay markets, the insurance allows players to pay a premium to guarantee the pay out of their bet, giving punters the opportunity to cash in early or reduce their liabilities if the bet is looking to be unsuccessful. BTwiice offers bookmakers a revenue share on the use of insurance, allowing them to earn additional revenue. The new fantasy games will be launched next year in Connecticut following the commercial launch of MyWinners.

The ancient setting is populated by druids roaming the hills of Western Europe and features 5reels, 3-rows, Wild substitutions and Free Spins. William Hill is taking on a selection of top desktop and mobile titles from Net Entertainment. Net Entertainment has also launched Magic Portals on its expanding Touch catalogue.

The Starburst video slot by Net Entertainment has been complemented by a smaller, playanywhere version called Starburst Mini. It features Starburst Wilds which appear on reels 2, 3 or 4 expanding over the entire reel and remain in place for up to three re-spins, at no extra cost.

Transformational new IGT slot The partnership between IGT and Hasbro has been a successful one for many years now and the latest licence looks likely to continue that trend. The line, five reel, high-energy slot is packed with innovative mystery and bonus features.

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The bright, colourful images of the slot games and casino sounds, such as coins falling, added to the experience. Gamers liked social casinos with the widest selection of classic and new slot games. Players will experience the iconic Monopoly gameplay when moving around the board, plus see captivating iconic game pieces fill the screen and Mr.

Monopoly appear in bonus rounds. Microgaming adds three more icrogaming has extended its casino games portfolio with the addition of three new video slots: Dolphin Quest, Rhyming Reels - Georgie Porgie and Paradise Found. Players have very high expectations for Microgaming games, and our new additions will certainly not disappoint. Both companies are extremely committed to introducing quality entertainment to the British market and we are very excited about this launch.

We are looking forward to offering the game to our customers who we know will enjoy it both at our Bingo clubs and online at meccabingo. A second million dollar jackpot game, Jackpot Pinatas, is expected to launch later this month. POKER Nugget of a deal maya Gaming Grouphas entered into an agreement to provide technology, including a poker platform and casino content, and poker services for goldennuggetpoker.

Under the terms of the Agreement, Amaya would receive a share of the revenue generated from the Brands, subject to necessary regulatory requirements. Through this partnership we can supply exceptional and secure online entertainment, supported by the strong brand of our land-based casinos. PLATFORM First Tanzanian operator deal uickfire, powered by Microgaming, is providing its gaming content to the first online casino and games operator approved and regulated by the Tanzanian government.

Dunia, a new online gaming site operating under the brand iplay8, is now live on the Quickfire platform. The GEObet. Irish PM opens Continent 8 centre Major expansion from Continent 8 in both Ireland and at home on the Isle of Man has seen the firm continue to develop its global portfolio. Continent 8 Technologies is focused on the delivery of market-defining internet technologies, products and services to the global online gaming industry; providing companies with secure and reliable facilities from which to host their online operations.

While the official opening only just took place, Continent 8 had been installed, operational and servicing customers in Dublin for over five months prior. This facility allows us to deliver on these requirements and continue to develop our global portfolio of managed services and solutions to the online gaming industry. The hosting provider, which has been headquartered on the island since , has increased the capacity of the facility as part of its diversification strategy and in order to reach growing demand.

Having been successful in delivering data centre services including Co-location, Managed Services, Distributed Denial of Service protection, Disaster Recovery, MPLS services and Content Delivery to online gaming companies across the world for more than 15 years, Continent 8 now. Using its recently opened data centre in Dublin as a blueprint, a key element of the Isle of Man upgrade is the introduction of fresh air cooling, via a dedicated air handing unit AHU.

Advertising sales: Neil Judson, Email: njudson gbmedia. GAN and GCA are combining their expertise to offer interactive solutions for online gaming and secure payments processing, thereby by providing a single point of integration and affording operators the ability to provide iGaming alternatives to patrons.

The agreement sees a DataCash solution implemented across all payment channels including eCommerce and direct credits processed through their successful website and mobile applications. Sky Betting and Gaming has renewed the partnership because of the long heritage DataCash has in providing payment processing in innovative indus-.

PayCorp diversification ayments solutions business Pay Corporation, part of Boxhill Technologies PLC, has signed an agreement with CRM software business Bright Office, further extending its reach outside of the gaming and lottery sectors. Opinions expressed in this publication should not be regarded as the official view of GB Media Corporation Ltd, except where stated.

Views, opinions and recommendations contained in this publication are put forward for consideration only. No action should be taken in reliance upon any such views, opinions or recommendations. Neither GB Media Corporation Ltd nor contributors accept any responsibility for any loss occasioned to any person howsoever caused or arising as a result of or in consequence of action taken or refrained from in realiance on the contents of this publication.

Notes for contributors: BBi welcomes the submission of articles for consideration by the editor with a view to publication. Submission of an article will be held to imply that the article contains original unpublished work which GB Media Corporation Ltd may lawfully publish. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission given, full acknowledgement of author, publisher and source must be given.

IT Spreadex in the cloud preadex will be able to safeguard the online experience for customers by deploying a new private cloud platform based on HP technologies. YX Gaming Grouphas launched into the Italian regulated market together with its first client Microgame, a leading service provider in the Italian remote gaming market.

I am thrilled to see our first Italian wager through the OGS system. To take this step together with one of the leading Providers in the Italian market is truly phenomenal. In only one year NYX OGS has become the games platform of choice for many tier one operators such as Microgame and this launch further increases our reach into regulated markets in which we provide this product. By adding NYX OGS to our existing portfolio, Microgame further strengthens its leadership position with the most complete online casino product offering in the Italian market.

The main thrust of the changes that bookmakers are introducing is to give their customers as much information on their own behaviour as possible and let them make their own decision. Those people need acute clinical help. What the new code will hopefully do is catch people on the precipice and allow them to check their own behaviour before going ahead.

Try it now. Whether these measures will allow punters to be perceived as fully consenting adults remains to be seen, although politicians do enjoy a top down approach when it comes to gambling. Las Vegas casinos have always been notorious for manipulating players to make sure they continue to pump those quarters into gaming machines by using environmental cues such as lighting, smells and sounds.

The infor-. How long would it be before campaigners demand these be implemented into the latest machines in order to curtail the prospect of problem gambling. This approach, as seductive as non-intervention gambling soothing factors may sound, should be avoided at all costs. It is player manipulation, pure and simple. Worse still it is underhand manipulation and should have no part of a gambling industry which aims for transparency and an adherence to facts.

As anyone who witnessed the latest debate on the future of the high street would have noted, facts are not necessarily a pre-requisite for political views however. The number of MPs convinced that betting shops encourage anti-social behaviour, despite the lack of any evidence, was disappointingly high.

The biggest problem that politicians have, of course, with betting shops is that they are so damn visible. Betting exchanges normally present their wares using two main techniques: the display of a price grid by showing, for each selection, the available prices and liquidity; and a regular refresh of the prices and liquidity. Customer interest in seeing price updates is clearly going to be strongly correlated to the number of bets per hour being placed on the market.

Using the simple concept of utility, refresh rates could be. Currently each exchange has its own, mostly simple approach, to refreshing prices on the users screen. As an example, Betfair seem to update the prices by default every 30 seconds, when the user submits a bet, or when the user clicks the refresh button.

Those punters who have a specific requirement for a refresh frequency that more reflects their particular needs are obliged to buy a betting robot which permits a clear user choice of refresh frequency. And maybe they are under-employed updat-. I have come home now and will not be going back. Not bad for a daft bet. Feeling the heat at half the stake John Samuels, case manager at arbitration service IBAS, tackles the oddly misunderstood case of settling dead heat results.

We will no doubt all remember the recent wellpublicised story when a racecourse judge called the wrong result to an evening horse race. A dead-heat was declared when in fact the photo showed that one of the horses was clearly, if marginally, in front of the other. And the subject of dead heats has often been the cause of other arguments in betting circles for other reasons. Only recently I have even seen some, whom I had considered to be more enlightened and intelligent racing journalists, suggest that bookmakers should indeed settle dead- heat bets at half the odds to the full stake!

However, as we should know, Tattersalls Rule 7 clearly confirms that, in a dead heat situation, it is half the stake that is applied to the full odds. And there is a. One further consideration is that most people will be confused if prices change too rapidly. So an updating policy more frequent than say once a.

However, appropriate refreshes of price and liquidity changes may provide a sense of urgency with a consequent increase in betting activity. So what is stopping betting exchanges from saving some demand for computer server resources making unnecessary updates at non-peak times, while improving the service provided to their users at periods of greatest interest? Similarly, many punters like betting on selections that have significantly reduced in price steamers or have substantially increased in price drifters.

However, customers are not always given such information directly on the price grid as they are considering placing a bet. A definition of a steamer or drifter might be, for example,. Betfair - to its credit - provides a graph of the price history made available by clicking a graph symbol against each selection. However, to find those selections that are a drifter or steamer requires significant proactive effort by the user.

Direct indication on the price grid on which selections have steamed or drifted significantly in the recent past may generate additional transactions by punters. A solution to this might be betting exchanges displaying the percentage change over an agreed period at the end of the name of each selection on the price grid perhaps using perhaps a two colour code.

A simple interface like this could well provide an extra call to action to the customer and boost revenues. Who would be a bookmaker given this scenario? At the risk of being seen to backtrack everything above, it is an interesting point that the decimal prices used by remote operators and others these days does make the barrack room lawyers, unknowingly, partly correct.

Allow me to explain. For reasons that maybe a mathematician would probably be able to explain, if one did halve the decimal price for the winner s , and apply the full stake, the result would be the same as applying half the stake to the full odds not decimal price. If one halves the 1. If one halves the decimal price of 3. Try some others yourself and see. It was an interesting few days on set, albeit some poetic licence was used in order to help the illegal betting shop side of the story add some spice to the drama.

Having learned from Inger and many other colleagues, I now feel ready to take on more responsibility within Paf. Shea was previhorse racing trading supervisor at Sportingbet and held. Bingo sale could leave Coral clear for IPO Gala Coral has been linked with selling off its bingo arm ahead of a flotation. According to the FT, Wykes. Indeed, earnings for Gala Bingo are reported to have dropped by more the a fifth in the quarter to the beginning of July performance which has been attributed to the good weather resulting in less people attending bingo halls.

The clandestineness of doping practices has led elite athletes who dope to increasingly consider the illicit market as a potential source for PIEDs Fincoeur et al. Such actions therefore may result in greater economic, social and individual harms rather than less e. An important difference between the two countries is that in the Netherlands more domestic underground production is reported to be taking place than in Belgium.

A particular worry of these growing UGLs is that the quality of these illegally produced steroids in general is quite poor De Hon and van Kleij ; Graham et al. However, the growth of UGLs in the Netherlands is not simply a consequence of their lack of policy.

Indeed, the expansion of domestic steroid production is not simply a Dutch development, but is a growing problem in many countries Llewellyn ; Paoli and Donati Even in Belgium the domestic production of steroids is slowly 40 K. As long as the demand for PIEDs remains strong the illicit production and supply of PIEDs will continue to exist, regardless of the legal barriers present in a country.

The increase in steroid production, therefore, cannot be explained alone by the lack of regulation in the Netherlands and the over-regulation in Belgium. Nevertheless, while domestic production plays a minor role in Belgium so far, the Internet is rapidly becoming the main tool for PIED purchases and sales.

Likely, due to the more repressive policies in Belgium, Belgian users seemed to have less accessibility to personal contacts, and instead resort to other sources such as the Internet, or obtained their PIEDs through contacts in the Netherlands Van de Ven The products bought over the Internet predominately consist of Dutch underground brands, and to a lesser extent exist of legitimate medicines.

Nevertheless, while Belgian users may be making greater use of the Internet, Dutch dealers seem to have adopted this tool to distribute their products, in particular to Belgium and other European countries. For example, Cordaro et al.

Subsequently, the growing role of the Internet may decrease protective factors e. This shift from medical products to illicit market sources in both Belgium and the Netherlands has also led to increased health risks and the rise of market-oriented suppliers e.

The problem with the rise of market-oriented dealers is that they bring with them a host of increased risks such as loss of expert advice e. At the same time, the bodybuilding case study outlines the need to replace totalizing claims of anti-doping and state authorities regarding the illicit PIED market, with an exploration of the multifarious characteristics and motivations of PIED dealing networks in the creation of evidence-based policy. Hough et al. Indeed, the bodybuilding case study 3 Illicit Performance and Image Enhancing Drug Markets 41 found no indications of organized crime, nor that economic incentives were the primary motivator.

Understanding the dynamic relationship between PIED users, their environment, and market operations is important when exploring policy options, as it enables and provides clearer understanding of the impacts of policy choices e.

While the case study may not be extrapolated to explain the characteristics and motivations behind other PIED dealing networks, it contributes another empirical case study of the proximate realities of PIED dealing networks from which we may draw some general inferences.

While the war on doping has yet to reach the extent of the war on drugs, a similar policy trend can be seen as the anti-doping policy elite and many countries around the world in particular in Europe continue to ratchet up their response to doping. Currently, the Netherlands is being pressured, both domestically and internationally, to adopt tougher measures towards the production and distribution of PIEDs.

However, looking at the history of drug prohibition is seems more likely that a zero-tolerance approach will lead to more harm Decorte , ; Costa ; Kayser and Broers Therefore, drug policies should aim to adapt and evolve in response to emerging trends and evidence in order to reduce potential harms. References Athey, N.

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Cordaro, F. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21 6 , — Costa, A. Council of Europe , July Supplementary report by the Netherlands on compliance with the anti-doping convention. De Hon, O. Kwaliteit van illegale dopingmiddelen. Decorte, T. Characteristics of the cannabis market in Belgium.

Korf Eds. Oxford and New York: Radcliffe Publishing. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21 4 , — Cannabis production in Belgium: Assessment of the nature and harms, and implications for priority setting. Brussel: Federaal. Deschepper, R.

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The American Journal of Sports Medicine,32 2 , — Evans-Brown, M. Human enhancement drugs. The emerging challenges to public health. Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University. Ferrell, J. Cultural criminology: An invitation. Fijnaut, C. Introduction to part II: Sources and literature. Paoli Eds. Concepts, patterns and control policies in the European Union and beyond pp.

Dordrecht: Springer. Fincoeur, B. Trends in Organized Crime. Gezondheidsraad Dutch Health Council. Dopinggebruik in de ongeorganiseerde sport. Den Haag: Gezondheidsraad. Goldsworthy, T. Steroid seizures and arrests soar to record highs in Australia.

Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 1 3 , — Maljevic, G. Antonopoulos, J. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers. Jaarverslag Etterbeek: Multidisciplinaire Hormonencel. Hough, M. A growing market: The domestic cultivation of cannabis. Inciardi, J. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: Who are the end users?

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1—2 , 21— Pharmaceutical crime and organised criminal groups. An analysis of the involvement of organised criminal groups in pharmaceutical crime since A sociological theory of drug sales, gifts and frauds. Kayser, B. The Olympics and harm reduction. Harm Reduction Journal, 9, 33— Kerr, T. The public health and social impacts of drug market enforcement: A review of the evidence. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16 4 , — Environments, risk and health harms: A qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK.

British Medical Journal. Koert, A. Handel in Doping; een verkennend onderzoek naar de handel in dopinggeduide middelen in Nederland. Kraska, P. Justice Quarterly, 27 2 , — Kruisbergen, E. Georganiseerde criminaliteit in Nederland: Vierde rapportage op basis van de Monitor Georganiseerde Criminaliteit.

Larance, B. Llewellyn, W. Underground anabolics. US: Molecular Nutrition. Anabolic steroids: An evolving black market. Paper presented at National Drug Conference, Wales. Anabolic steroids. Presented at the Public Health and Enhancement drugs Conference. Drug markets and distribution systems. Maycock, B. Social capital: Implications from an investigation of illegal anabolic steroid networks. Health Education Research, 22 6 , — Oldersma, F. Doping en handel. Onderzoek naar aard en omvang van dopinghandel en ontwikkeling van indicatoren.

Paoli, L. Doping and anti-doping: Neglected issues in criminology. European Journal of Crime, 20, — The sports doping market. Potter, G. Demetrovics, J. Kraus Eds. Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers. The globalization of cannabis cultivation. Decorte, G. Bouchard Eds. Ashgate: Aldershot.

Ritter, A. Studying illicit drug markets: Disciplinary contributions. International Journal of Drug Policy, 17, — Sagoe, D. The global epidemiology of anabolicandrogenic steroid use: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiology, 24 5 , — Seddon, T. Drugs, crime and social exclusion: Social context and social theory in British drugs-crime research.

British Journal of Criminology, 46 4 , — Snippe, J. Stimulerende zaken opgespoord. Evaluatie wetswijziging bestrijding doping in de sport. Striegel, H. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81 1 , 11— The Guardian. Organised crime policies in the Netherlands.

Dordrecht, NL: Springer. Van de Ven, K. The formation and development of illicit performance and image enhancing drug markets: exploring supply and demand, and control policies in Belgium and the Netherlands [unpublished Ph.

Social suppliers: Exploring the cultural contours of the performance and image enhancing drug PIED market amongst bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. International Journal of Drug Policy, 40, 6— Van Hout, M. International Journal of Drug Policy, 24 6 , — Varese, F. General introduction: What is organized crime?

Varese Ed. Vogels, T. Leiden: TNO Gezondheidsonderzoek. Walsh, C. Drugs, the internet and change. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43 1 , 55— Wassink, H. Capelle aan den IJssel: Dopingautoriteit. Part II Human Trafficking and Prostitution Chapter 4 Legal Prostitution Systems in Europe Ronald Weitzer Introduction When decriminalization and legalization of prostitution are debated in legislatures or in the media, it is usually in the abstract, without reference to actual legal prostitution systems.

This means that both knowledge and public policy are heavily skewed in the direction of a single type: illegal sexual commerce. Much less is known about nations that have more tolerant policies and thus offer an alternative to criminalization Weitzer An earlier version of this chapter was presented at a conference sponsored by the Center for Information and Research on Organized Crime, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, December 3, The nature of the regulations vary considerably across legal regimes, from minimal e.

They take the controversial view that it matters little whether prostitution is legal or illegal and, if legal, the nature of government regulations. Prostitution is policy-resistant, they claim. What appear to be diametrically opposed regimes Sweden, Holland, Germany, etc. At the micro-level, sex workers are depicted as indifferent to state policies and incorrigible to regulation. Despite some important surface-level contrasts. Bernstein , pp.

Given the failure of such regimes everywhere to be and do what they claim, it is not rational to continue to argue over which of them is best. Law and state policy do impact the social organization of sex work, power relations among participants, and their lived experiences Scoular Even if many actors ignore the rules e. Prostitution policy has important consequences for the participants and for the wider society.

For some countries, only one of these sources was available. Weitzer factors when many of them cannot be measured across all countries in the study. The authors dichotomize the variable, demonstrating little appreciation of variations within it— particularly 1 the different types of prostitution that are legally allowed and outlawed, which differs radically from one legal system to another, and 2 the different kinds of regulation inscribed in diverse national laws.

Legal prostitution is not monolithic in the activities that are permitted or the kinds of regulations in effect Weitzer Unfortunately, these two studies were embraced by politicians and policy makers in several countries, and used to justify new criminalization laws. State Department. For Europe, the U. Weitzer cases yielding convictions was fairly stable for years—67 in , 79 in , 73 in , 77 in —but increased to in National Rapporteur b, This is not a correct conclusion.

Before the lifting of the general ban on brothels, THB and other criminal abuses were taking place in all sectors of prostitution. Some of these sectors are now under control and can be assumed to have rid themselves of their former criminal excesses, or are doing so. It is possible that THB is increasing in the illegal, non-regulated, or non-controlled sectors. It is in fact likely that this is not the case.

National Rapporteur , p. Cho , p. Table 4. The number of cases, for example, decreased from to from to In there were such cases, which steadily dropped to in This unfortunate pattern can be seen in both prohibitionist nations e. The government plans to reduce the number of marijuana bars and window-prostitution rooms by half Municipal Council In fact, the latter have mobilized to prevent the proposed changes from taking effect Aalbers and Deinema Enough is Enough!!!

To date, it has passed only one of the two chambers in parliament. There have also been some externally imposed rules: A ruling by the European Court of Justice in stipulated that managers must be able to communicate with sex workers in order to ensure their safety. This means that sex workers in the Netherlands must be able to speak Dutch or English with the owners and managers of brothels, escort agencies, and windows.

Most of the Eastern European sex workers in the Netherlands speak at least some English, so the ruling will not affect them, but it may impact a small number of South American workers insofar as they only speak Spanish. Missing in these policy struggles are the preferences of sex workers themselves. The authorities almost never consult sex workers or the organizations representing them, with the result that public policies on prostitution consistently fail to take their interests into account.

Protestors marched to city hall and presented a petition to the major, during which he was visibly embarrassed by the some of the activists. A survey of 94 window prostitutes working in 4 This does not mean that residents were in complete consensus regarding the RLD; some residents have supported efforts to gentrify the area. Similarly powerless is the prostitution sector: the organizations working on behalf of the sex workers and the brothel and window owners.

The remaking of this RLD has been essentially top-down, imposed by local government elites. Some other Dutch cities have recently followed suit. Many window-prostitution units were closed in Alkmaar in , because of alleged money laundering by one owner. The closing of one area—the boat-prostitution Zandpad area—had the unintended consequence of forcing the sex workers into underground settings and subjecting them to greater risks than previously Siegel Germany Germany offers another example of recent struggles over prostitution law and policy.

Questionnaires were distributed by female interviewers who visited all window occupants present during six days in February The researchers either conducted an interview on site or left the questionnaire with the woman and retrieved it at a later time. I am grateful to Bas Merkx for providing me with the results of the survey. The 16 states and the municipalities are permitted to implement the law as they wish, including designating the type of prostitution permitted, where it can be located, and whether to implement the law at all declining to ask local administrators to produce implementation guidelines.

Two states Bavaria and Saxony refused to implement the law because they considered prostitution immoral Pates , contradicting one of the premises in the law itself. An example of how local policies differ drastically is revealed in a study of Dortmund and Leipzig.

A major new law was passed in July , and will take effect in This includes requiring business owners to keep detailed records of their agreements with sex workers; rules for enhanced health, hygiene, and security; and the licensing of sex businesses run by managers. Registration of sex workers has been a failed policy in almost every country that has experimented with it Weitzer Mandatory condom usage is almost impossible to enforce, unless the authorities conduct undercover visits and request unprotected sex.

Public Opinion on Prostitution Finally, it is useful to examine European laws and state policies from the vantage point of public opinion. Attitudinal data are relevant insofar as it is important for policies to be culturally rooted and for identifying nations that might be amenable in the future to policy reforms. France, Sweden, Hungary, and Bulgaria are in the middle, in the 40s range. Weitzer however, social tolerance and legal tolerance are congruent: Switzerland, Netherlands, Germany, and Australia.

The World Values Survey is not without problems. The World Values Survey does not ask questions about policy preferences. For that, I have collected separate poll data from various nations. These data reveal that substantial majorities of the public favor legalization of prostitution in Britain, France, Germany, Czech Republic, and the Netherlands see Table 4. In some nations, law and public policy conflict with popular preferences. France has several influential anti-prostitution organizations that have pushed for increased criminalization; their abolitionist views were endorsed by a parliamentary commission on prostitution in , which led to the client criminalization law Mathieu Apart from the French poll, none of the others in Table 4.

Properly contextualized comparative studies also have the advantage of allowing researchers to identify similarities and differences within a particular country e. Similarly, 62 R. Weitzer ethnographic research on legal red-light districts in several cities Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, Frankfurt, Ghent has documented a full spectrum of physical arrangements, social organization, government involvement, and policing styles Weitzer , ; Weitzer and Boels Hubbard and Whowell Distilling a set of standards from empirical material on a variety of societies is obviously superior to the formulation of national policies in a vacuum, without cross-fertilization from elsewhere.

Policy transference can occur, at least to some degree, despite differences in national histories, cultures, and populations. References Aalbers, M. Placing prostitution: The spatial-sexual order of Amsterdam and its growth coalition. City, 16, — Sex and the limits of enlightenment: The irrationality of legal regimes to control prostitution. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 5, 73— Amsterdam Sociaal.

De Amsterdamse prostitutie monitor. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Sociaal. Bernstein, E. Temporarily yours: Intimacy, authenticity, and the commerce of sex. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cho, S. Liberal coercion? European Journal of Law and Economics, 41, — World Development, 41, 67— Annual report. Daalder, A. Prostitution in the Netherlands since the lifting of the brothel ban. The Hague: Ministry of Justice. Danter, E. Green light at last for Dutch red light districts.

Deutsche Presse-Agentur. Di Tommaso, M. European Journal of Political Economy, 25, — Deviant girls, small-scale entrepreneurs, and the regulation of German sex workers. Ditmore, A. Levy, A. Willman Eds. New York: Zed. Emergo Group Project. Emergo: The joint approach to organized crime in the heart of Amsterdam. Report by the Federal Government on the impact of the Act regulating the legal situation of prostitutes Prostitution Act.

Berlin: Federal Ministry. Feingold, D. Foreign Policy September , pp. Hubbard, P. Revisiting the red light district: Still neglected, immoral, and marginal? Geoforum, 39, — A global alliance against forced labor. Geneva: ILO. Jakobsson, N. European Journal of Law and Economics, 35, 87— Kleemans, E. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64, — Mai, N. Migrant workers in the UK sex industry. London: London Metropolitan University. Mathieu, L. The debate on prostitution in France: A conflict between abolitionism, regulation, and prohibition.

Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 12, — An ambiguous compassion: Policing and debating prostitution in contemporary France. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 9, — Ipsos MORI prostitution survey. June 11—12, Municipal Council. Heart of Amsterdam.

Amsterdam: Municipal Council. Mensenhandel in en uit beeld II. Oude Breuil, B. Trends in Organized Crime, 14, 30— Outshoorn, J. Policy change in prostitution in the Netherlands: From legalization to strict control. Pates, R. Liberal laws juxtaposed with rigid control: An analysis of the logics of governing sex work in Germany.

Reckless, W. Vice in Chicago. Scoular, J. How and why law matters in the regulation of sex work. Journal of Law and Society, 37, 12— Mobility of sex workers in European cities. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 18, — Het Zandpad—Closing brothels or closing eyes?

Den Haag: Boom Juridische Uitgevers. Surtees, R. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 39— Vienna: United Nations. USDS [U. Department of State]. Weitzer Verhoeven, M. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 21, 49— Weitzer, R. Legalizing prostitution: From illicit vice to lawful business. The social ecology of red-light districts: A comparison of Antwerp and Brussels. Urban Affairs Review, 50, — Annual Review of Sociology, 41, — Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 12, — Sweden introduced a unilateral prohibition against the purchase of sex in in an active attempt to target the demand side.

The Swedish Sex Purchase Act attracted much attention when it was introduced. European Parliament resolution of 26 February on sexual exploitation and prostitution and its impact on gender equality. Olavs plass, P. Skilbrei and C.

While many have heralded the Swedish Sex Purchase Act for its effects and its progressiveness, it has also met with much critique, particularly pointing to it impacting negatively to the development of the market and the safety and access to rights for people selling sex see, e. Others too, including academics, assume a causal relationship between the two without further discussion.

Nevertheless, the relationship between prostitution 68 M. We would add that it is a problem that some studies do not make it clear which data have been used in the analysis see, e. Jakobsson and Kotsadam ; Cho et al. As mentioned, Sweden is renowned for its unilateral criminalisation of the purchase of sex. Swedish debaters discussed revising legislation on prostitution throughout the s and s.

The question of gender-based power was central to the debate and the question of gender was not only made relevant to how prostitution itself was understood, but also in creating an understanding of prostitution as harmful to all women and detrimental to gender relations outside the prostitution arena as well: the existence of prostitution harms all. With these new images of prostitution and the people involved, came a focus on the clients and their responsibility for the existence of the market.

In this way, the Sex Purchase Act became an acceptable tool for politicians who might not have agreed with its previous feminist framing. Thus, the reasons why an act such as the Sex Purchase Act exists and continues to exist are dynamic and cannot only be interpreted only in terms of the explicit intentions of the politicians who fought for the act. The ways in which other agendas and politicians appropriate and repurpose legislation are also relevant to our understanding of the effects of the law on the Swedish prostitution markets and society today, as we will return to below.

The central aim of the act was to deter and to change societal norms. It should be noted that this individual act is not fully representative of the way in which Sweden approaches prostitution. While the Sex Purchase Act was introduced to direct attention and blame for prostitution towards the demand side, the Alien Act is applied in a way that punishes the seller of sex.

This act is also used as a basis for deportations. In recent years, this act has solely been applied to third country nationals but in the past, European citizens have also been turned away at the Swedish border on suspicion of intending to sell sex. We thus argue that to take the unilateral criminalisation of the purchase of sex in Sweden to mean that Swedish policies target clients only and that Swedish society is sympathetic to persons who sell sex, is too simplistic.

One of them is the number of cases that reach court and end in a successful prosecution. A different translation is given in a recent report by the County Administrative Board of Stockholm However, the Board has chosen to avoid presenting estimates in reports after Until recently Sweden did not have a standardised national referral mechanism, but there were established channels for inter-agency cooperation between different institutions The Migration Board 9.

However, the procedure was that the police decided what to make of the information given by other institutions or authorities and how this information should be processed. Late a national referral mechanism was introduced by the County Administrative Board in Stockholm. This is also the case for the reflection period, though this is more of a theoretical issue, as it has never been used. The crime has to have been reported to the police and criminal proceedings initiated for the person to be considered an injured party.

Whether or not a person is an injured party is decided by the court after the prosecutor has initiated a prosecution. The police and professionals within the court system describe that characteristics of the victims and their statements is an important part of the problem with building court cases.

They do not always act in correspondence with their idea of a victim for a general discussion of this, see Brunovskis and Skilbrei Policies move from international to national agendas, and from national policy-making to national and local implementation or appropriation.

To be able to study the consequences of particular policies we need an overview of the totality of what is done. In Sweden too, primarily in Gothenburg, the police noted a certain increase in the number of Romanian women being exploited for the purposes of street prostitution in Instead, they are concerned with gathering evidence.

However, these conclusions are presented with caution. Criminal data are only produced if there is legislation and law enforcement agencies who care to act on the problem and are capable of doing so Jakobsson and Kotsadam As a consequence, the threshold for someone to be counted is higher there than in many other places including neighbouring Norway. They get different information from victims and have access to other sources of information Brunovskis It is often a case of comparing apples and oranges.

A temporary residence permit can be issued for six months and thereafter be renewed. In other countries, the stated aim is that the needs of the police and prosecution should not be an obstacle for victims to receive assistance. Policies move from international to national agendas and from national policy-making to national and local implementation or appropriation. As researchers, we need an understanding of the totality of what is done and we need comparative work to explore the consequences of policies.

Prostitution is not policed with prostitution laws alone, and the complexity of how the phenomenon is dealt with in Sweden demonstrates that our understanding of prostitution law requires more insight into the relationship between the law on paper and the law in action. What goes on inside the nation state in terms of criminal justice or other policies is not as important as policymakers appear to believe.

Policymakers and law enforcement operate on assumptions about how one affects the other but the issue is rarely problematised. This chapter points to how this problem is not only one of politics and activism: researchers too reproduce and give weight to statistics that are obviously dubious. They may be equally valid as indicators of the level of efforts undertaken: more efforts, more cases brought to light.

References Akee, R. Anderson, B. A multi-country pilot study. Geneva: IOM. Aromaa, K. Stegonizzi Eds. Ask, B. Sweden: Why we criminalized purchase of sexual services. CNN International. Accessed November 28, Brunovskis, A.

Report Nordic Council of Ministers. Two birds with one stone? World Development, 41 1 , 67— The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 2 , — Dodillet, S. Wagenaar, S. Amesberger Eds. Platform Den Haag. Ekberg, G. The Swedish law that prohibits the purchase of sexual services. Violence Against Women. Solutions, 2 2. Florin, O. A particular kind of violence: Swedish social policy puzzles of a multipurpose criminal law. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 9 3 , — Gallagher, A.

The global slavery index is based on flawed data—Why does no one say so? Accessed April 13, Helmerson, A. Dagens Nyheter. Accessed September 16, Huisman, W. Working Papers in Economics, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. European Journal of Law and Economics, 35 1 , 87— Kelemen, K. Kram, E. Svenska Dagbladet Opinion. Levy, J. Marinova, N. Foreign Policy Analysis, 8 3 , — Raymond, J.

Report to the special rapporteur on violence against women. United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. Scullion, D. Social Inclusion, 3 1 , 22— Skilbrei, M. Prostitution policy in the Nordic Region. Ambiguous sympathies. Surrey: Ashgate. Justitiedepartementet, Stockholm: Fritzes. The County Administrative Board of Stockholm. The Migration Board.

The National Criminal Investigation Department. Handel med kvinnor. National Criminal Investigation Department: Stockholm. The National Police Board Rikspolisstyrelsen. Situation Report 9: Stockholm. Situation Report Stockholm. Tillsynsrapport Report Tyldum, G. FAFO-rapport Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 12 2 , 81— The opening up of the borders, the expansion of the EU and increased mobility are also seen as facilitating factors for cross-border criminal activities.

In the present article an attempt will be made to combine these two processes—the transition and the enlargement of the EU—in an effort to explain the current activities of organized crime networks in East and Central Europe as well as their expansion to the West. Most East and Central European countries have an established tradition of organized crime, in particular since the fall of communism in the early s, when a large number of local criminal organisations came to the fore.

These organisations were known for their hierarchical structure, discipline and use of violence. In fact, the position and status of the leaders of these criminal organisations depended on their success in international business, their collaboration with the legitimate world and their ties to politics. This article is based on research data collected in — on itinerant East and Central European criminal groups operating on the territory of the Netherlands and Belgium.

It focuses on four countries in particular: Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. At the time, these countries stood out in police statistics in the Netherlands. The full research was published in Siegel Siegel The present article will focus on the socio-economic conditions facilitating the mobility of criminal groups to the West.

The Long Transition Period The transition from socialism to capitalism involved a long and confusing process. In the social science literature, most Central and East European countries are still described as unsafe, economically unstable, and inclined to turn a blind eye to corruption and organized crime.

The boundaries between legal and illegal were blurred, the process of rethinking and reorganising the basic principles of the economy was complex and organized crime took full advantage of the uncertainty and confusion surrounding business transactions.

The transition process brought new economic and social conditions, such as the free mobility of people, goods and capital in all post-socialist countries. Corruption and distortion were rampant as a result of the fact that the process of privatisation and the transition to the free market were not accompanied by effective regulation regarding the rights of ownership Siegel For example, some countries were not only forced to rearrange their economic markets and democratic regimes, but also to assert their independence [such as the countries of former Yugoslavia Selih ] and deal with violent ethnic conflicts and socio-political unrest.

The socio-economic conditions in East and Central Europe varied from one country to another, but some general patterns can be distinguished in almost all of them. In most post-socialist countries a considerable number of police personnel moved into the private security industry, which became active in both legal and illegal markets.

Entrepreneurs in the security industry turned to extortion, 6 The Mobility of East and Central European Organized Crime … 85 kidnapping, robbery and debt collection Los In most countries former sportsmen athletes, wrestlers and boxers , members of army sports clubs and former soldiers played an important role Nikolov In this period, the countries were also faced with an influx of criminal groups from abroad, mainly from the former Soviet Union and Asia Cejp and Scheinost Criminal organisations from the former Soviet Union joined forces with Polish criminals Plywaczewski All these groups sought to expand their criminal markets not only in East and Central Europe, but also in Western Europe.

At the same time, indigenous criminal groups mushroomed everywhere in the former socialist countries and, in a very short period of time, were able to strengthen their position. A joint characteristic of the organized crime groups in all these countries was their ambition to achieve internationalisation and the expansion of their markets and activities Cejp and Scheinost , The EU considered that the economy, agriculture, human rights situation and standard of living in these countries had improved to such an extent that they now complied with EU requirements.

In further expansion of the European Union took place. Two important aspects of this expansion were seriously underestimated throughout the preparations. Violent Latvian and Polish gangs had been spotted in large Dutch cities. Many Dutch citizens anticipated problems with the new Europeans. Dutch shopkeepers, for example, were warned by their trade associations to stay alert and take preventive measures before 1 May Many of them had already had negative experiences with Polish and Bulgarian thieves.

The problem of corruption in East and Central Europe is considered to be of major importance when it comes to organized crime. Various reports on the level of democracy within the four countries prior to their accession to the EU acknowledged that legislative and institutional changes had been implemented. However, what these reports had in common was that they all pointed to the discrepancy between legislative changes and the way in which they were applied in practice.

Categories of Organized Crime Groups Between the criminal organisations in the four studied countries there are many similarities as well as differences, especially with regard to the ethnic component, the role of criminal bosses, cooperation or rivalry with other criminal groups and the intensity of contacts with political and economic actors. Their main activities involved the protection of stores, clubs and businesses, extortion, collecting loans and punishing people who did not repay their loans.

These people established large holding companies in order to merge thousands of smaller companies and place them under their control. Bulgarian criminologists have pointed out that the development of private security companies, a synonym for organized crime, was unique to the Bulgarian situation and unlike the development of criminal networks in other post-communist countries Gounev ; Tzvetkova ; RB16; RB Many smuggling channels were established during this period.

One of the economic branches controlled by organized crime was the car market. High demand after the collapse of socialism led to the emergence of a large black market for stolen cars. In the mids, several hundreds of cars were stolen every month, i. These stickers guaranteed the owners of cars, shops or other small businesses that their goods would not be stolen or damaged CSD Cars bearing stickers indicating that they were protected were indeed stolen much less often than cars without stickers.

Nevertheless, these insurance companies still provided better protection than the police. It then introduced a licensing regime for insurance companies, which resulted in the closure of many criminal insurance companies.

One of the most powerful Bulgarian organized crime groups in the years was Multigroup, the successor of the two criminal organisations VIS and SIC. In its leader Iliya Pavlov tried to legitimise his business dealings, but he was assassinated.

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